Operant conditioning is considered the second learning principle. This type of learning occurs due to the cause-and-effect relationship between a behavior and its consequences. Operant conditioning has a common sense element. When we reward a behavior, it increases. When we punish a behavior, it decreases (Horvath et.al. 2013). Individuals who dislike particular substances have little risk for developing an addiction to those substances. Such dislikes to certain drugs or substances are not uncommon. Some people do not enjoy certain substances so therefore this protects them from developing an addiction simply because those substances are not enjoyable so therefore they are not rewarding (Horvath et. al. 2013), because addiction is considered
The other process is operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the process where behaviour is reinforced. If behaviour is done and the consequences are negative they are therefore punished and so therefore the person does not enjoy it. If they make an action that is good it will be rewarded so therefore positively encouraged the action to be reinforced.
Behavioral theory is the idea that human behavior can be learned, while learning stems from experience. An individual’s experiences can lead to their behavior. Ivan Pavlov developed the concept of classical conditioning, which helped in developing behavioral theory. Pavlov developed classical condition with experiments run with animals, finding that behavioral responses “can be produced by pairing consequences with stimuli” (Lehmann & Coady, 2001). This idea can be carried over from animals to humans, as noted in individuals suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, who may have physiological or emotional responses from stimuli that remind them of the traumatic event (Lehmann & Coady,
After a behavior, an aversive stimulus may be removed entirely, reduced in intensity or its onset delayed. This is either intentional or unintentional reinforcement provided by another. Can be viewed as escape or avoidance.
a) Define Classical Conditioning and Behaviorism. b) Identify the two major characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from operant conditioning.
Behaviourists use two types of processes to explain how people learn: classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) and operant conditioning (Frederic Skinner).In classic conditioning, individuals learn to associate stimuli when they occur together to a response. Therefore individuals learn to produce an existing response to a stimulus that is presented. Take for instance little Albert. The little boy that was classically conditioned to respond with anxiety to the stimulus of a white ray by Watson and Rayner.
In operant conditioning, it is the process by which the connection between an operant and a reinforcer or punishment is similarly broken. (Kowalski & Westen, 2011) To treat phobias using the extinction process from either method of conditioning, people who suffer from phobias are exposed to what causes the fear and shown that there is no reason for the irrational behavior. Using extinction to treat addiction requires the person suffering from the addiction to find other methods to get the high they obtain by satisfying their addiction.
“Acquisition is gaining new information and placing it in the memory” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example by using the meat the dog will produce saliva whenever it sees light. If you ring the bell and follow it by light, without introducing food the bell itself will trigger the dog to produce saliva. This is called second-order conditioning. Second-order conditioning can produce effects that can lead to fears called phobias (Gewirtz & Davis, 2000). “Extinction is the undoing of a previously learned response so that the response is no longer produced” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example, when a light is presented continuously followed by a blow of wind this will create a continuous response. Therefore everytime the light is presented on its own the dog will automatically shiver (Gleitman et al, 2011). “Discrimination is an aspect of learning in which the organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that have been associated with a US and stimuli that have not” (Gleitman et al, 2011). For example, if a person comes up to you with an angry face on them and you feel fear in response to their angry face what you need to do is discriminate. In other words remove the fear by ignoring the person. The last principle of classical conditioning is Contingency. “Contingency is managing a form of behaviour therapy in which certain behaviours are reliably followed by
The behavioral approach is the idea that observable behavior is a result of environmental components and past experiences. These components are known as the stimuli and the behavioral effect that it produces is called its response. The explanation behind this idea is based on how individuals learn, which is through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a process that associates two stimuli, which then creates a new learned response every time those stimuli are paired together. The stimuli begins as being neutral, however, proceeds to turn to one that is conditioned. An excellent example of this idea is in Pavlov's dog experiment where the dogs learned to associate a bell with food. Operant conditioning is a process that correlates the likelihood of actions happening based on associating its positive or negative consequences. For instance in Skinner's rat experiment, the rat knew to instantly go to the lever in its box once it figured out it would drop food which was positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement was also demonstrated when it would be removed and instead the rat would be electrocuted when not on the lever, eventually the rat learned to go to the lever instantly to avoid the electricity. In the story, Dibs: In Search of Self by Virginia Axline, the main character Dibs often supported behaviorism. For instance, when Dibs was in the playroom and began to play with the doll house and the way he would repeat “Dibs
The same behavior can also be achieved through operant learning. For instance, each time the young boy sees a rat, a slight pain is inflicted on him. Now each time the rat is seen and some pain is inflicted, the young boy will learn to fear to see the rat because he fears the consequence that will follow after seeing it. He might even result in fleeing to avoid the consequences that follow. The behavior of fearing the rat is a consequence of the young boy fearing pain. This is a case of operant learning as the boy feels the urge to flee after seeing the rat and this is a behavior learnt.
The premise is that all behavior is learned; faulty learning (i.e. conditioning) is the cause of abnormal behavior. Therefore, the individual must learn the appropriate behaviors to replace poor behaviors. Two such therapies are aversion and flooding.
Classical Conditioning comes into play with multiple behavior therapies and the clients’ learned responses to life situations. Using the principles of this type of therapy, the therapist can make connections to what has brought about responses such as anxiety in the client. They can also use this idea to form a reverse response in a sense. The same way that a behavior can be learned, it can also theoretically be unlearned, or a new behavior learned. The therapist can work with the client to elicit a new response after repeated exposure to triggers and focus on a new response (Corey, 2013).
Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning, their theories, terminology, famous psychologists and applications of the theory for teaching.
Skinner’s theory observes individuals from the point of view of the behavior that they demonstrate. The key weakness of this theory is its attempt to explain the behaviors of an individual solely through visible phenomena. Critics sometimes accuse behaviorists of denying that ideas and thoughts exist (Jensen & Burgess, 1997). The major opposition that behaviorists face is that behavior of a person cannot be understood without including the mental activity of the individual. Critics have accused behaviorists of focusing only on behavior and ignoring the role of physiology, neuroscience, and genetics (Weiss & Rosales-Ruiz, 2014). Sometimes the reactions that people demonstrate have are not related their experience and therefore they have another
Operant conditioning is a type of learning which occurs through either receiving reinforcement or punishment for a behavior. This type of learning creates an association between a behavior and consequence for that behavior. The four types of operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, positive punishment, negative reinforcement, and negative punishment. If operant conditioning was used properly it could be used to solve a variety of social and resource dilemmas; especially in the case of the cattle ranchers and overgrazing.