Type 1 Diabetes Aetiology : Autoimmune Destruction Of The Beta Cells

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1. A) Type 1 Diabetes Aetiology: Autoimmune destruction of the beta cells located in the pancreas, both genetic predisposition (Parent/s have type 1 Diabetes) and environment factors (virus: mumps, rubella and toxic chemicals.) upper respiratory infection triggers involved in type 2 Diabetes often referred to as childhood diabetes due to the age of patients diagnosed with this form. Type 1 Diabetes Pathophysiology: Autoimmune- Anti islet antibodies attack through Lymphocyte infiltration and destruction of the insulin secreting beta cells of the langerhans within the pancreas. Destruction of beta cells > Beta cells decline> insulin secretion decreases until insulin is no longer available to maintain normal blood glucose levels.>Beta cells…show more content…
Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a condition of Insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia resulting in metabolic acidosis and severe osmotic diuresis. An inadequate amount of the hormone insulin that the body requires to enable the cells to use the glucose as energy triggers the breakdown of fatty acids for energy use by cells leading to increased formation of acids called ketones in blood and urine. The kidney’s inability to excrete ketones and cells are unable to use ketones resulting in ketones building up in blood. Blood glucose levels increased as the liver produces glucose in an attempt to correct the body to homeostasis. Acidosis occurs with a blood ph balance becomes less than 7.35 and cellular injury occurs in addition hyperglycaemia accompanies osmotic diuresis as the kidneys cannot absorb the glucose and its leaked into urine causing water to move by osmosis from blood to urine resulting in electrolyte loss of salt and water causing dehydration. DKA develops from an increased demand of insulin during periods of stress, infection, severe illness, inadequate insulin production or administration. In Joan’s case it could possibly be due to her type 2 Diabetes where her body is unable to make adequate insulin or insulin resistant as her doctor recently
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