The blood glucose level has very limited range for humans to survive and stay healthy. Generally, people are able to remove excess glucose rapidly from the body but this is not the case when they are diagnosed with diabetes and insulin resistant situations. The lack of insulin resistance can also lead to a decrease in glycogen synthesis and storage as it usually converts glucose to energy for cell’s use (Jensen & et al. 2011). When insulin is produced under insulin resistance, the cells are incapable of using them effectively which then leads to high blood sugar level as ketones and ketoacids are produced as an alternative energy source for the body. The rise of ketoacid causes the blood pH acidic and the patient may also be diagnosed with ketoacidosis (Newton & Raskin 2004). There would also be less intake of lipid and more of stored triglycerides as the lipids are effected by the insulin. As the glucose levels increase, the muscle glucose uptake will decrease while the liver glucose production and blood fatty acid concentration will also increase within the body (Lichtenstein & Schwab 2000). Excess glucose within the blood are converted to fat which can lead to Diabetic Dyslipidaemia and furthermore to obesity, hypertension and
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent because the pancreas produce little to no insulin due to the destruction of beta cell in pancreas(Bardsley et al, 2004). Therefore, the insulin have to be injected manually for body to function normally. (Seewaldt et.al, 2000) states that in type 1 diabetes, the beta cell located in the islets of Langerhans have antigen that cause the immune system to produce antibodies and kill the insulin producing cells. The autoimmune response is thought to be caused by the autoreactive CD4 and CD8 effector cells that recognise islet self-antigens, as an outcome there is greater than 90% destruction on insulin producing cell BACH (1994). Similarly, (Nakayama et al,2005) and (Kent et al, 2005) supports that insulin in itself is a
DKA is presented with three major physiological disturbances which are hyperosmolality due to hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis because of the buildup of ketoacids, and hypovalemia from osmotic diuresis. Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by a profound deficiency of insulin, its most likely occur in people with type 1 diabetes, inadequate insulin dosage, poor self management, undiagnosed type 1 diabetes, illnesses and infections. In type 1
For unknown reasons, the body of a T1D attacks the insulin producing cells, called islets, that are formed in the pancreas and destroys them. This type of attack is known as an autoimmune disorder (Diabetes Research Institute Foundation [DRIF], n.d.). Insulin is the hormone that allows sugar to enter cells, and produce energy. The body now sees islet cells as foreign and eventually the pancreas yields little to no islet cells. Once there are no more islet cells to produce the insulin hormone the sugar levels in the blood become high, called hyperglycemia. This disturbance in homeostasis is not like type 2 diabetes (T2D), where the body becomes insulin resistant. In a T2D, the pancreas still produces islet cells and they are still
Classic symptoms of diabetes usually presented with newly diagnosed diabetics are: hyperglycaemia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, fatigue, blurred vision, headaches, and unexplained weight loss. Ketone bodies are found in the urine, this abnormal finding occurs when fatty acid by-products (acetones) are excreted in the urine. The ketones are present from a lack of the insulin hormone used to metabolize fats and carbohydrates. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication which results from minimal useful insulin hormone in the body, hypoglycaemia, or insufficient food intake (American Diabetes Association, 2008).
Diabetes is caused by reduced production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas which allows the blood sugar cells to be able to use blood sugar. It is necessary for glucose to go from the blood to the inside of the body cells. Because of the poor insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. The body is unable to use glucose for energy. When you are diagnosed with diabetes the doctor should try to stabilize the metabolism and eliminate the symptoms of high blood glucose because of the rapid onset of symptoms. The effects of diabetes are thirst, urination, vomiting, fatigue, and hunger which are the most common symptoms for. The extra sugar remains in the blood and
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing-β-cells located in the pancreas, specifically in the islets of Langerhans, responsible for regulating blood glucose levels in the blood. Insulin is a hormone which when released, signals the live, muscle and fat cells to take in glucose to be used as energy. If the body has sufficient energy, then the liver can store the glucose through the passage of insulin into glycogen. Glucagon, the antagonistic hormone to insulin produced by Alpha cells in the pancreas, is released when the blood sugar levels are too low and causes the liver to convert the stored glycogen into glucose. The difference between type1 and type 2 diabetes is that T2D is when the body does not effectively respond to
As we discuss acid and bases along with pH balance in blood a term that came to mind was Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). This is a term that I have heard numerous times but didn’t not understand the meaning or cause. The term is commonly associated with diabetes but can also be associated with extreme exercise, low carbohydrate diets and eating disorders
Type 1 Diabetes occurs when the insulin producing beta cells also know as islet cells, produced in the islet of langethan, are attacked in the pancreases resulting in little to no insulin production. This leads to elevated levels of blood glucose (more than 8mmol/L) and if left uncontrolled multiple complications arise (reference NPS MIDICE WISE).
Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus are extreme thirst, excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine (Colbourne et al, 2007). Dehydration is a condition that occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. With dehydration, more water is moving out of our cells and bodies than what we take in through drinking. Symptoms of Dehydration are increased thirst, dry mouth, tired or sleepy, decreased urine output (Colbourne et al, 2007). Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake needed to maintain an organism's life. Symptoms of Starvation are, shrinkage of such vital organs as the heart, lungs, ovaries, or testes, and gradual loss of their functions, chronic diarrhea, Anemia, reduction in muscle mass and consequent weakness (Colbourne et al, 2007). Nephritis is the inflammation of the kidney. Some symptoms of Nephritis are pain in the pelvis, pain or a burning sensation while urinating, a frequent need to urinate, cloudy urine (Colbourne et al, 2007). Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also
When a person has diabetes, depending on the type, the body is unable to absorb the glucose, leading to hyperglycemia. When the sugar concentration remains high for prolonged periods of time, the kidney has to increase its reabsorption and the glucose will be excreted in the urine. The increase in glucose causes osmotic pressure in the urine so the kidney reabsorbs water as well. An increase in water reabsorption leads to dehydration. When the glucose is not properly reabsorbed the body cannot store it in crucial areas such as the liver and muscles. Without energy to perform reactions, the body cannot perform crucial metabolic mechanisms such as protein synthesis. The body begins to lose energy and as a result, damage is done to various
In type 1 diabetes the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. The body is believed to do this because of some unfortunate genetic coding.
Moore (2004) argues that in order to treat patients adequately, nurses should possess a thorough understanding of aetiology, clinical presentations and treatment of the three leading diabetic emergencies: hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome, hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. DKA is a life-threatening medical emergency that can result in coma or even death if medical treatment is not administered (Moore, 2004). Prior to insulin discovery, DKA was customarily fatal, with ketoacidotic coma being the usual cause of death (Palmer, 2004). Ketoacidosis occurs due to a deficiency of insulin and an excess of counter-regulatory hormone. Lack of insulin results in reduced glucose uptake
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious disease with complications that may have fatal results in some cases. DKA is defined as an insulin deficiency that occurs when glucose fails to enter insulin into muscles such as: liver and adipose tissue. When there is an accumulation of ketones, it leads to metabolic acidosis which causes nausea and vomiting, as a result fluid and electrolytes are lost (Gibbs). There are many complications of diabetic ketoacidosis, some of the most prevalent are: Cerebral Edema, Hypoglycemia, and Acute Pancreatitis.
In this scenario, according to his blood work results and signs and symptom, Larry went through diabetic ketoacidosis. When there is an increased blood glucose level in DKA, three major syndromes occurs such as electrolyte imbalance, metabolic acidosis and osmotic diuresis. (Mistovich J,2008)