Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ( Or Juvenile Onset )

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus The aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (or juvenile onset) is a localised auto immunity disease caused by type IV cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (T cells) are responsible for the destruction of Beta (β) cells with in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreases (Handorf, Sollinger, & Alam, 2015). Although reasons why are unknown, this is due to T-Cell Receptors (TCR’s) binding to self-antigens presented by class 1 Major Histocompatibility Complex ((MHCs) Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) in humans) on the membrane of β cells aided by binding cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4). CD4 a transmembrane glycoprotein present on T-cells binds to a specific region of the MCH this is the first signal…show more content…
DISC starts a caspase cascade were procaspase 8 is cleaved to caspase (cysteine-aspartic acid protease) 8 which in turn cleaves procaspase 3 to the caspase 3. It is caspase 3 which fragments proteins and activates caspase activated DNase (CAD) to fragment deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within the cell by breaking down peptide bonds (Janeway, Travers, Walport, & Shlomchik, 2001). Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes has shown to have an incident rate of 22.8/100,000 in children under 15 while its peak age for diagnosis between 9 and 14 year of age and occurs rapidly over a few weeks. Like its name suggest juvenile onset suggests 95.1% of people under 19 have type 1 when compared to type 2 diabetes furthermore makes up only 5-10% of all diabetes cases (Cass, 2015). As previously stated the mechanisms of why this auto immune disease occurs are unclear however there are risk factors which increase your likelihood of developing the disease. Family prevalence can increase your risk factor even though in 85% of cases there is no family history. With 2-4% increased change if your mother has the disease and 6-9% if your father has the condition. This raises up to 30% if both parents have the condition linking genetics and environmental factors to developing the disease, specifically being a heterozygote for the
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