Type 1 Diabetes and Adolescents

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Type 1 Diabetes and Adolescents Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes occurs as a result of the body’s immune system attacking the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas (Mandal). A lack of insulin in the blood means inadequate amounts of glucose are taken up by cells of the body to provide energy for cellular functions. Glucose remains in the blood leading to a high blood sugar level (Mandal). Type 1 diabetes seems to run in families which suggest a genetic basis to the pathology of the condition. There is a possibility that lack of vitamin D in the first year of a child’s life may raise the risk of type 1 diabetes developing (Mandal). Diagnosis for an asymptomatic patient requires 2 abnormal test results, which the tests can be HbA1c, random plasma glucose, and fasting plasma glucose. Diagnosis for a patient with classic symptoms of hyperglycemia can be made with a single random plasma glucose result of 200 mg/dL or higher (Group). Patients with type 1 diabetes most commonly present as hyperglycemic without acidosis and with abrupt onset of symptoms and not usually overweight. Cardiac risk reduction is the most important management issue for patients with diabetes (Group). Risk factors can be blood pressue (< 140/80 mm Hg), LDL cholesterol (< 100 mg/dL), HbA1c ( < 7%), and fasting blood glucose ( 80-120 mg/dL). The ideal blood glucose targets are as follows: before meals ( 70-120 mg/dL), 1 hour post-meals ( 180 mg/dL), bedtime ( 70-120
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