Essay on Type 2 Diabetes

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Type II Diabetes Mellitus: An Emerging Epidemic

     Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by inadequate insulin secretion by the pancreas or cellular destruction leading to an insulin deficiency. Depending on the cause of the insulin shortage, diabetes can be subcategorized into type I and type II. Type I diabetes (T1DM) is usually mediated by the destruction of b-cells in the pancreas resulting in decreased insulin production and secretion. Type II diabetes (T2DM) is the failure of these b-cells to secrete adequate amounts of insulin to compensate for insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis combined with an overall resistance to the insulin action (8., 1997). T2DM accounts
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Other symptoms such as damage to the kidneys, eyes, nerves, heart, and blood vessels can occur if the diabetes goes unnoticed for a prolonged period of time and glucose levels are not controlled (Novitt-Moreno, 1996).
     The detection of T2DM can be difficult because the patient may or may not have many of the symptoms depending on how severe their case is. Many of the symptoms are very similar to those of type I diabetes making classification difficult. Some patients are found to have glucosuria upon routine urinalysis, which could lead to the diagnosis. Ketouria can also be detected but usually only occurs in only one forth of patients who have type II diabetes. Simple clinical features of T2DM can assist doctors diagnosing and classifying the disease. More than 85 percent of patients diagnosed are overweight or obese. A family history of type II diabetes is found in the majority of patients who are known to have T2DM. A skin condition known as aconthosis nigricans is also common and can be detected by routine physical examination. It is characterized by hyperpigmentation and a velvety texture caused by long-standing hyperinsulinism and usually is found around the neck, inner thighs, and antecubital areas (Nesmith 2001).
     In addition to clinical signs, laboratory tests and evaluations are necessary to classify a person accurately. Diagnostic tests include fasting plasma glucose, random plasma
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