Types And Subconscious Response By Effector

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1. Reflexes are automatic and subconscious response to a stimulus. A reflex arc, the neural pathway that a nerve impulse follows, orchestrates the operation of reflexes. The following are parts of the reflex arc: a) The arrival of stimulus and activation of receptor: The receptors located in a sensory neuron detect a stimulus and generate a graded potential. If the strength of a stimulus is above the threshold, then an action potential is generated. b) Activation of a sensory neuron: The generated action potential is then carried to the spinal cord by the sensory neuron. c) Processing of information in the central nervous system (Interneuron or relay neuron): The sensory neuron synapse with the interneuron in the spinal cord. In the central nervous system, the responses are again graded at the synaptic junction. Now the interneuron conducts nerve impulses from the sensory neuron to a motor neuron. d) Activation of a motor neuron: The motor neuron now transmits nerve impulse to an effector. e) Response by effector: Effector is usually a muscle or gland. If the effector is smooth muscle, responses summate to produce action potentials in the smooth muscle, however, if the effector is skeletal muscle, the graded response is enough to produce an action potential. Depending on the situation, the effector generates an appropriate response. 2. Starling forces govern the exchange of fluids between capillaries and the interstitial space. The following are four forces in action

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