Types Of Acid Base Imbalances

1291 WordsDec 1, 20166 Pages
1 (a) There are four types of acid base imbalances that can occur within the human body. These are best known as respiratory alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis and metabolic acidosis. Each imbalance works in its own way and causes different effects on the body. The pathophysiology of the acid base imbalance, respiratory alkalosis, is best described by a human taking deep and rapid respirations resulting in alveolar hyperventilation. When a person experiences hyperventilation, it results in the loss of carbon dioxide. “The PaCO2 is 45mm Hg and the pH is less than normal” (Huether & McCance, 2012). The pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis is best described as the rapid loss of metabolic acid which then causes bicarbonate concentration to increase. “Metabolic alkalosis is recognized by increases in both arterial blood pH, alkalemia, and plasma bicarbonate concentration. The increase in arterial blood pH promptly, normally, and predictably depresses ventilation resulting in increased PaCO2 and the buffering of the alkalemia” (Galla, 2000). The pathophysiology of metabolic acidosis is best described when there is a loss of bicarbonate from the extracellular fluid or the kidneys are unable to regenerate. “The buffering system normally compensates for excess acid and maintains arterial pH within normal range. The specific type of acidosis can be determined by figuring out the serum anion gap (Huether & McCance, 2012). 1 (b) There are diseases or
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