Research from the Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) shows that there is over an 8% 30-day mortality rate for patients admitted with a preliminary diagnosis of (STEMI) in the United Kingdom (UK) (Gavalovar and Weston, 2014)
Diabetes can affect the entire body. Two-thirds of adults with diabetes have high blood pressure, or hypertension. This condition is serious because it leads to an increased risk of stroke, heart disease, kidney and eye problems.
Contradictory to what is often shown on movies, not all heart attacks start with the sudden and crushing chest pain. The symptoms vary among people. Some people especially diabetic have mild pain, and others suffer severe pain. Moreover, one person may have different symptoms in every heart attack. The earliest sign may be angina which is a temporary decrease in blood flow to the heart that is caused by exertion and relieved by rest. Another sign could be tightness or a squeezing sensation in your chest or arms which may spread to your neck, jaw or back. Others are cold sweat, fatigue, shortness of breath, nausea, indigestion, or abdominal
Hyperglycemia is a very serious risk for heart disease and strokes. Complications from hyperglycemic diabetes may include coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, stroke, arrhythmias, or even death. High blood glucose (sugar) levels over time can lead to excess fatty deposits on the insides of your blood vessel walls. These deposits often affect blood flow, which increases the possibility of blood vessels clogging and/or hardening. As a result, this leads to heart disease. Furthermore, those with diabetic heart disease (DHD) may have less success with heart disease treatments, such as angioplasty or artery bypass grafting. “The common clustering of these risk factors in a single individual has been called the metabolic syndrome.” (Scott 1134) Uncontrolled diabetes, the biggest contributor to heart disease, is almost four times higher for adults than those without diabetes. The best way to prevent diabetic heart disease is to control it by way of reducing the risk factors through diet and lifestyle changes.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest heart disease in the United States1. Approximately, 29% of patients with Myocardial Infarction ( MI ) present with ST- elevation Myocardial Infarction ( STEMI )2. STEMI is the result of complete occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery due to thrombus formation. STEMI from a small coronary artery presenting as substantial EKG abnormalities similar to occlusion of a major artery and hemodynamic instability is a rare entity. The epidemiology, typical clinical presentation, outcomes, and optimal management in this group of patients are not sufficiently known.
There are many different complications that are caused by diabetes. If you have diabetes, you are up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke (WHO). When the blood glucose levels are increasing it results in the furring and narrowing of your blood vessels which may result in a poor blood supply to the heart. This can lead to a heart attack or a stroke. This doesn’t only put the patient’s life at risk but it also results in a huge cost on the NHS. It can also affect the patient’s family a friends hugely emotionally but also physically if they are in need of care after the event. It can change the patient’s life style dramatically. It is not only the blood vessels near the heart that are affected it is also the blood vessels in the nerves. This
Diabetes is also linked to developing cardiovascular disease more often. Hypertension and diabetes are usually linked together and if a patient has both, their risks of cardiovascular disease doubles. People with diabetes can also have abnormal cholesterol amounts ranging from high to low. Smokers with diabetes should immediately stop smoking if they want to save their bodies. Smoking increases your chance of having a stroke and cardiovascular disease with
Cardiovascular disease- Diabetes drastically increases the risk of different cardiovascular manifestations, such as coronary artery disease and affiliated chest pain (angina), stroke, tightening of arteries (atherosclerosis), and heart attack. Having diabetes mellitus, raises the likely hood of having heart disease or stroke.
A non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is a very common presentation to emergency departments everywhere, as well as primary care practices. Therefore, it is important that all providers be well informed on the effectivity of certain treatment regimens.
Our body system is not immune to pathological deficiencies. There exist numerous identified pathologies which compromise the regular functioning of a heart, but all heart-related pathologies are narrowed to a single condition known as Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). This is the term properly used in reference to the different identified clinical entities threatening the cardiovascular system. ACS is the result of the progressive or complete sudden blocking of the arteries or veins; this prevents an appropriate blood flow through the circulatory system, and as a consequence, the body is unable to receive enough oxygen and nutrients to meet its daily necessities.
Chest pain was presented in 49.5% of patients with STEMI6. The pain may radiate to arms, neck, stomach or jaw7. There may also be sweating, light-headedness, nausea or shortness of breath8.
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and PCI with fibrinolysis are current therapy options used for patients who have had an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). These six article discuss multiple elements involved in the discussion comparing the many factors that affect which forms of therapy is preferred to which patients. Concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of primary PCI have risen. Factors include the optimal time for therapy, the important of hospital staff and volume, and the efficiency of PCI after fibrinolysis.
Perhaps the most deadly of all the heart’s complications is a heart attack. A heart attack is the leading killer in men and women in the United States, with an estimate 1 million heart attacks alone in the United States (NHLBI). A heart attack occurs when the heart is unable to obtain oxygen, due to a section of heart muscle becoming blocked and preventing oxygen-rich blood to flow properly. The leading cause of heart attacks is coronary heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease. Coronary heart disease is a result of plague, a waxy like substance, building up inside the coronary arteries, the arteries that are responsible for providing blood to the heart (NHLBI). Overtime, the built up plaque can rupture inside of an artery causing a blood clot to form, which prevents blood from reaching heart muscles. Portions of heart muscle once fed by this now blocked artery begin to die if blockage is not treated in time.
“Time is muscle” when it comes to cardiac. Heart attack patients are either non-STEMI or STEMI. STEMI stands for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. In patients who are non-STEMI’s, aggressive antiplatelet therapy is the primary treatment due to a soft clot or platelet plug. In patients that are a STEMI, reperfusion is the primary treatment due to a stable clot. There are two methods of reperfusion that are used: fibrinolytic’s or PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention). For either STEMI or non-STEMI there is supportive medical therapy is used which includes Oxygen, Nitroglycerin, Morphine, Beta Blockers and ACE inhibitors.