INTRODUCTIONS: Microorganisms are both beneficial and harmful. These microorganisms are important to humans because they play a role in the ecology of life, by decomposing wastes, both natural and man-made, such as creating nitrogen fertilizer at the root zones of certain crops. Other several pathogens that can cause serious harm, even immediate death due to the diseases or disease causing products they produce. Overall, microorganisms play an important role in life.
Often scientists work with bacteria that do not come in a labeled test tube— for example, bacterial samples taken from infected human tissue or from the soil—and the scientist must then identify the unknown microorganism in order to understand what behavior to expect from the organism, for example, a certain type of infection or antibiotic resistance. However, because of the relatively few forms of bacteria compared to animals and because of the lack of bacterial fossil records due to their asexually reproductive nature, the taxonomy used to classify animals cannot be applied to bacteria (Brown 275). In order to classify unknown bacteria, a variety of physiological and metabolic tests are available to narrow a sample down from the fathomless number of possibilities into a more manageable range. Once these tests have been performed, the researcher can consult Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, a systematically arranged and continually updated collection of all known bacteria based on their structure, metabolism, and other attributes.
Microbes are bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. The earth was formed 4.6 million years ago. And a few million years later, by 3.5 billion years ago, earth was already inhabited by a diversity of organisms. The earliest organism is Prokaryotes and within the next billion years, two distinct groups of prokaryotes called bacteria and archaea diverged. Eukaryotes cell evolved from a prokaryotes community, a host cell containing even smaller prokaryotes .The microbial world accounted for all known life forms for nearly 50 to 90% of Earth's history. We are still researching microbial organisms today in marine environment, extreme environments. A microbial observatory is an NSF-funded project dedicated to the discovery and characterization of novel microorganisms and microbial communities of diverse
1. Before, biologists assumed all microbes are bad for the human body (automatically thought of pathogens), caused many diseases and harm our body fundamental systems. In addition, the biologists think that our body is already built which had all the functions required to maintain our health. However, the attitude has changed over the last decade. The biologists characterized the most prevalent species of microbes in the body, and found out that these collective microbes do not threaten us, and they also are important part of human bodies.
Ashley Antia-Obong Dr. Eric Birgbauer BIOL 203-009 21 October 2016 Biodiversity of Microorganisms in Winthrop Lake vs. Wetland Abstract: Microorganism need to live in ideal conditions so they can grow. This experiment was performed to determine if there was a greater number of microorganisms in Winthrop lake than Winthrop wetlands. We determined this hypothesis because the lake was bigger. We also made the hypothesis that the pH level of the lake was going to be higher than the wetlands. We tested out the hypothesis by going out to Winthrop lake and wetlands and collecting samples of water. Back in the lab, we examined the samples under a microscope and recorded all the organisms we could find on Excel. Also, we tested the pH levels of the
The microbes found in soil go hand in hand with the microbes found in our bodies, especially the gut microbiome. Soil is used to grow various plants and crops which we then ingest. As stated in Healthy Soil Microbes, Healthy People, we have completely destroyed soil microbes by overusing fertilizers and pesticides just like how we have destroyed our gut microbes by ingesting processed foods and large amounts of antibiotics. Soil microbes, including bacteria and fungi, form symbiotic relationships with plant roots to help provide the plant with many nutrients needed to survive. In order to restore and improve the soil once again, we need to reintroduce bacteria and fungi that are capable of repairing the damage. Through recent technological advances, the soil microbiome was genetically sequenced. This allows farmers and other scientists to understand which microorganisms are
Introduction: The type environment that bacteria live It is the y value posted in the upper right hand corner. The following data was obtained from the “Closed-System Growth” experiment:
living hosts. Bacteria is a Prokaryotic cells that are present in the soil, air, water and in many
Module 1: Assignment 1: Chapter 1 Toi Thomas Atlanta Metropolitan State College Fundamentals of Microbiology (BioL 2215) Dr. Vasanta Chivukula June 06, 2015 1. Explain microbial activity in energy and nutrient flow through the earth’s ecosystem. Microbes are necessary for life to exist. "Without microbes, decomposition cannot take place" (Chivukula, 2015). Photosynthesis and decomposition are vital to the ecosystem to ensure that life can exist, and both use microbial activity to provide energy and nutrients. Photosynthesis must take place to convert light into chemical energy for organic material. Decomposition uses microbial activity to breakdown
Microbes are everywhere and anywhere. Microbes can be found from on surfaces of our daily lives to microbes we encounter and spread on. Microbes have been always since life started in this planet. According to a BBC article about Earth, “…an older microbe came to light…to be a remarkable 3.5 million years” (BBC). As stated, microbes may be considered to have been here long before any other living organism, which means these microbes have evolved through time as well. With evolving comes the different types of bacteria that may benefit us and also harm us. Harmful bacteria such as Lyme disease and the Plague which both derive from an infected insect with different bacterium. These two different disease made different approaches to our history
The identification of bacteria is a fundamental objective of microbiologists. It is essential to distinguish specific bacterial properties to understand the environment, physiology and disease. As new bacterial species emerge and existing ones evolve into different strains, it is imperative that microbiologists continue to isolate bacteria from the field, identify their findings and research newly discovered forms. Their discoveries can then be used to evaluate the types of microbial life that may be found in certain environments and the corresponding benefits or risks to those that dwell in those areas.
Identification of an Unknown Bacterium #C-4 Laura Bromley Russell Sage College BIO 208L- Microbiology Lab Professor Anne Rea Due: April 14, 2015 Introduction When we speak of the word “bacteria” some individuals may not recognize how large of a role these tiny organisms play in our everyday lives. Some may jump to the conclusion that bacteria are
Introduction Life on this planet began with microorganisms. Through millions of years microorganisms have found ways to successfully adapt and survive. These adaptations have created a wide biodiversity, allowing them to basically populate in all places. Why are these microbes so important? Because they shape the history of our world. Some microbes can be deathly to humans while some others are favorable, for example, bacteria that lives in the gut of both humans and animals and helps during the process of digestion (Alfred Brown & Heidi Smith, 2006). Understanding these interactions help scientists to find ways to protect humans from potential deathly pathogens. In order to observe microbes, microscope proficiency and microorganisms’ identification are crucial skills in a microbiology lab. During this laboratory session, samples of environmental and human organisms were inoculated into two different rich media and incubated to their according temperature. After this, appropriate use and calibration of the microscope was performed. Lastly, morphology and size of different species of bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoan were recorded.
Another purpose of this experiment is to stress the importance of knowing the identity of a microorganism. Knowing the species of microorganism present in a sample provides a
Results Six experiments were carried in this report concerning the effect that different environmental factors have on microbial growth. The results were recorded into tables where (+) symbolises growth and (–) symbolises no growth.