Types Of Conditioning, Classical And Operant

2282 WordsApr 8, 201610 Pages
Learning theories are normally divided into paradigms, these paradigms symbolise the different views in learning. They consist of; behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism, humanism and play. Behaviourism is “the theory that human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts and feelings” (Oxford dictionaries) a behaviourist believes that all learners start with a clean slate and that we are conditioned. Conditioning happens when we interact with the environment and how the environment stimulates us dictates our actions. There are two types of conditioning, classical and operant. Theorist Ivan Pavlov is associated with classical conditioning; Pavlov was born September 1849 in Rayazan Russia and died February 1936. He studied at the University of St Petersburg and received a degree in the Candidate of Natural Sciences in 1875. His theory came about through his study of dogs, he noticed that every time he entered the room in his white lab coat his dog would salivate even if he didn’t have any food, the dog didn’t learn to salivate it was a reflex, it is ‘hard-wired’ into the dog; an unconditioned response. He linked this to the white lab coat, the dogs had learned they would receive food. He wanted to take this further so he then introduced a bell, this was a neutral stimulus, every time he gave the dogs food he would ring the bell, after repeating this action a few times he then rang the bell on its own and the effect was the
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