Types Of Long Term Memory

2173 Words Aug 19th, 2016 9 Pages
According to Shiffrin & Atkinson (1969), long-term memory is defined as the processes by which information is stored in and retrieved from. The two processes involved in long-term memory are encoding and retrieval. Encoding refers to the process in which information is learned and converted into a memory representation, whereas retrieval refers to accessing previously stored information (Shiffrin & Atkinson, 1969). The two forms of long-term memory are declarative or explicit memory and non-declarative or implicit memory. Declarative memory (DM) refers to subsystems of long-term memory that can be deliberately, intentionally or consciously recollected. These subsystems are known as episodic memory and semantic memory (Squire, 1992). Episodic memory is defined as the long-term memory subsystem that stores information about past events, occurrences or episodes related to an individual 's life and is used to recall such events or episodes. Semantic memory is a long term memory system that stores and recollects facts and general knowledge (Squire & Zola, 1998). Recognition or recall tasks are usually used to measure DM (Wagner et al, 1998). Non-declarative memory (NDM) refers to the memory subsystem that impacts recent perceptions and behaviour without knowledge, consciousness and intent. The subsystem within NDM involved in long-term memory is known as procedural memory (Squire, 1992).The NDM of skills is termed as procedural memory. The process involves learning a skill or…
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