Types Of Protein That Play Immune System By Its Multifunctional Acts Of Pro Inflammatory And Anti Inflammatory Response

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Muhammad Rafi
Professor Chuck Fink
Biology 4100
10 March, 15
Interleukin 6 Interleukin 6 is a type of protein that plays a role in immune system by its multifunctional acts of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory response. It is produced by T-cells and macrophages. Interleukin 6 is encoded by “IL-6” gene in humans. IL-6 is type of myokine that stimulates immune response during infection and after trauma. IL-6 works by binding to two cell surface receptors, IL-6Ra (low-affinity specific) and gp130 (high-affinity converter) respectively (Crystal Structure…). In late 1960s, T-cells essential role of being involved in antibody production was reported. Dr. Tadamitsu Kishimoto discovered the activity of IL-6 in early 1970s. The factors
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The gene promoter contains elements that are induced by stimuli; glucocorticoid and cAMP. The protein itself is located in extracellular regions in the body. The IL-6 protein usually operates by classical and trans-signaling pathways to process expression. Following image shows the difference between two types of signal pathways. (The pro- and anti-inflammatory…) One of the many roles of IL-6 includes the profound effects on B-cells. It supports B-cell growth by the production of antibodies and promoting plasma cell differentiation. The trans-signaling of IL-6 plays an important role in chronic inflammation (Inhibition of Classic…). In acute inflammation, IL-6 is released along with neutrophil accumulation by proinflammatory cytokines. The chemokine (IL-8) makes neutrophils promote the IL-6R and leads to differential regulation of chemokine production. This results in the production of MCP-1 and IL-8 reduction, which favors the monocyte accumulation. This trans-signaling also promotes the leukocyte accumulation. In contrary, the IL-6 also saves T-cells from apoptosis leading to inflammatory cell infiltrate. This positive feedback of trans-signaling releases IL-6 and plays a role in propagating chronic inflammation. The trans-signaling of IL-6 also has its implications in autoimmune diseases. In Crohn’s disease, the IL-6 inhibits Na2+/K+ATPase and protects
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