Typhoid Fever Essay examples

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Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an intestinal illness, which can result in great suffering and even death. At first it was commonly confused with other fever causing illnesses until 1869 when William Jenner performed a careful analysis and found differences in the different types of typhus fevers. In this paper, I will discuss the bacteria that causes typhoid fever, discuss the signs, symptoms, method of transmission, past and current epidemics, and whether or not there has been a decrease in outbreaks in the past few years. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, a member of the genus Salmonella, which is included in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Salmonella typhi cells are aerobic, gram negative rods that…show more content…
If the immune system is unable to stop the infection, the bacterium will multiply and then spread to the bloodstream, after which the first signs of disease are observed in the form of fever. The bacterium penetrates further into the bone marrow, liver, and bile ducts, from which bacteria are excreted into the bowel movements. (Easmon 2003) The second phase of the disease involves the bacteria entering the immune tissue of the small intestine. This causes vomiting and diarrhea, often described as "pea soup." If left untreated, the bacteria can create a hole in the small intestine, causing intestinal matter to flood the abdominal area. If one is lucky enough to survive this illness without treatment, he or she can still be a carrier of the germs long after the symptoms have disappeared. The bacteria have an ability to fight the normal bodily process of eliminating germs. Recently, the mechanism used by the bacteria to avoid detection has been identified. The typhoid bacteria use a protein to kill macrophages, which are our first defense against infection. Without these macrophages, infection goes unnoticed into the body. (sciencedaily.com) Killing these macrophages is the key to survival for the typhoid bacteria. Researchers identified in mouse cells a protein kinase called PKR that causes the death of this macrophage, or large white blood cells that act as the body's first defense against

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