In the book "Letters From Rifka" Rifka and her family, except Saul, got a potentially deadly disease called Typhus. this choice an challenge will give information on this disease like how it is contracted, where it is most common, symptoms, treatment, severity, and the long-term effects of this disease.
Yellow fever is a deadly disease caused by a viral infection that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Although it is found to be most common in males in their early 20's, yellow fever can affect any sex, race, or age. Since yellow fever is carried by mosquitoes, it is most often found in areas such as Central America, the northern half of South America, and Central Africa where mosquitoes are abundant. The reason why it is found so often in these
Thesis Statement: The primary purpose of this research paper is to inform the reader about how infectious diseases are found globally and how are they being contained.
In recent news, there have been a large number of cases associated to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) which have impacted a number of American Indian communities in Arizona. (CDC/IHS, Newsweek).
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an illness that is spread to people by infected ticks. The illness causes flulike symptoms and a reddish-purple rash. This illness can quickly become very serious. Treatment needs to be started right away. When the illness is not treated right away, it can sometimes lead to long-term health problems or even death.
This means avoiding ticks, the organism that is most responsible for spreading this disease to humans. Long sleeved clothing, wearing hats, and tucking pants into one’s socks are all common preventative measures. Another way to prevent the spread from tick to human, is to remove the tick as soon as it is found on the skin so that there is less time to actually transmit the disease. Aenishaenslin et al. claims that Lyme disease is very often an endemic species, and only two cases must be confirmed in a county in order for it to become an endemic county. Antibiotics are most commonly used in order to treat Lyme disease. However, the vigor with which drugs are used depends greatly on the stage of the disease that the patient has progressed to. Treatment may last several weeks; if symptoms persist, or return, another round of medication will be
Typhus is a deadly disease. It is caused by infection, which comes from rickettsia bacteria. Fleas, lice, ticks, and mites transmit rickettsia bacteria when they bite you. There are 3 types of Typhus. The 3 types are endemic, epidemic, and scrub. Epidemic Typhus is caused by lice, ticks, and body louse. Endemic Typhus is caused by flea, rats, and cat flea. Scrub Typhus is caused by louse, mites, fleas, ticks, and lice. You can easily get scrub Typhus in lice-infected areas. Once the bacteria is in the bloodstream, they continue to reproduce and grow. Typhus can last for 10-12 days at a time. All of the symptoms can occur. Typhus leaves red dots on the human skin. It can become deadly if left untreated. Although the 2 major (most common) types
Now, vaccinations are recommended for those who want to travel to some parts in South America and Africa (mayoclinic, 2014). Only a safe and very effective vaccine can prevent the Yellow Fever. Five of the most common preventions are being aware of peak mosquito hours (which is usually from dusk to dawn), wearing proper clothing (like long sleeved shirts and long pants), avoiding outside exercises when mosquitoes are active, being in air-conditioned or well screened houses and using an EPA registered repellent (CDC, 2014).
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also called blue disease , was first identified in the rocky mountain region of the United States but has since spread across Northern and Southern America. The disease is transmitted by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsia and is spread to humans by the Dermacentor tick species. It is a fatal illness in humans but is curable with effective antibiotic treatment of Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol which, since the 1940s has drastically decreased the number of deaths associated with RMSF. Diagnosis of the disease in the early stages is often difficult due to the diverse clinical features, therefore the disease is often referred to as “the great imitator”. Symptoms usually appear with 2-14 days of infection
This journal article gives a broad overview of tick borne relapsing fever. It explains the causative agents and here they are respectively found and as well as the vectors and their environments. The article also shows an epidemiological spot map of the U.S. and TBRF cases.
Those diagnosed with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most severe type of spotted fever, have the rickettsia rickettsii bacterium to thank. This gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen has varying levels of virulence, from avirulent to highly virulent, and thus the severity of the disease differs among individuals. Highly virulent strains include the Sheila Smith strain and an avirulent strain is the Iowa strain. Despite their virulence, various strains of the rickettsia rickettsii pathogen have the potential to be transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors, like ticks. The article also notes that
The issue for healthcare professionals is their exposure to patients with the virus, and treatment process of deal
For most of time Yellow Fever was an endemic specific to Africa, however, when world started to become more globalize the disease spread to America through infected mosquitos a broad ships. Because the mosquitos like the warm weather and lay their eggs in standing water, the souther climate of America was an ideal environment for them to thrive, during the summer months. One outbreak of Yellow Fever, in Memphis, had a great impact on the city. Although the Yellow Fever was prominent in the port cities rail roads carried it further inland. Yellow Fever was an awful disease that caused, miserable symptoms and the panic of the people.
In this paper I have discussed the vector borne disease of Lyme disease, and the zoonotic disease of Rabies. Both of these diseases are preventable and treatable but they do present public health hazards. Climate change is adversely impacting environments and humans are now living closer than ever to the boundaries of these diseases. In fact, in greater densely populated areas more and more individuals are coming into contact with such diseases. Prevention requires resources which many developing countries are lacking which leads to inadequate treatment for those whom are
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, many animals can spread leptospirosis pets and farm animal, rodents, raccoons, opossums. There are two ways to contact the disease, drinking contaminated water or by swimming, rafting or kayaking of by coming in contact with soil contaminated with urine or bodily fluids of infected animals. The second way of contamination is by coming in direct contact with urine or bodily fluids of an infected animal for example in a hospital setting. Individuals most at risk are farmers, mine worker?s slaughterhouse workers, veterinary and animal caretakers, fisherman and people who work with fish, and military personnel and those involve in water outdoors activities (control). The disease if more prominent in areas with inadequate sewage, and tropical regions, epidemics are usually seen in extreme weather patterns. (Lunn)