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Ultimate Reality In The Shang Dynasty

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Although tian 天 mainly indicated a physical or spacial place rather than the Ultimate Reality in the Shang dynasty, its graphic form and semantic meaning already had similarities with Di 帝 in the later period of Shang Dynasty. It is in the following Zhou dynasty, Tian 天 and Di 帝 have been used as different names or titles to refer to the same Ultimate, which laid the common foundation for the transcendent Ultimate in Confucian tradition.
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