Ultra-Nationalism as the Fundamental Factor Leading to the Outbreak of the First World War

1096 WordsJun 23, 20185 Pages
Ultra-Nationalism as the Fundamental Factor Leading to the Outbreak of the First World War There are several factors which caused the outbreak of the First World War, namely ultra-nationalism, neo-imperialismæ–°å¸åœ‹ä¸»ç¾©, the armament raceè»å‚™ç«¶è³½ and Alliance SystemåŒç›Ÿåˆ¶åº¦. Among these factors, to a certain extent在æŸç¨‹åº¦ä¸Š, ultra-nationalism can be viewed被視為 as the fundamental factor leading to the outbreak of the First World War. Hans Kohn describes nationalism as "a state of mindæ€ç¶­ç‹€æ…‹ in which the supreme loyaltyæœ€å¤§çš„æ•ˆå¿ of the individual個人 is felt to be due toå‘è‘— the nation-state". Before 1870, nationalism in Europe meant the desire of a nation for territorial…show more content…
France felt humiliated被侮辱 and thus launched展開 a revenge movement against Germany. Ultra-nationalism was the fundamental cause of the outbreak of the First World War in such a way that it also intensifiedåŠ åŠ‡ the other causes of the War. First of all, Bismarck俾斯麥 devised設計出 the Alliance System to isolate孤立 France. There were the Dreikaiserbund三å¸åŒç›Ÿ of 1873, the Dual Alliance兩國åŒç›Ÿ of 1879, the Second Dreikaiserbund第二次三å¸åŒç›Ÿ of 1881, the Triple Alliance三國åŒç›Ÿ of 1882 and the Reinsurance Treatyå†ä¿æ¢ç´„ of 1887. In 1894 France managedèƒ½å¤ to break the diplomatic isolation by allyingçµç›Ÿ with Russia. Since Kaiser William II德皇å¨å»‰äºŒä¸– hoped to get "a place in the sun在太陽裡佔一席ä½" and carried out the policy of "Weltpolitik世界政策", Britain felt threatened. Britain reached the Entente Cordialeæ‘¯èª å”定 with France in 1904 and Dual Entente諒解 with Russia in 1907. Europe was thus divided into two opposing敵å°çš„ armed campsè»äº‹é™£ç‡Ÿ. Woodrow Wilsonå¨çˆ¾éœ said that secret diplomacy秘密外交 that the Alliance System used "poisoned毒害 the public life of Europe for 40 years". The Alliance System complicated複雜化 the international relations in Europe by creating fear and

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