In today’s world, the role of IT has turned accounting estimated critical in financial reporting and disclosure. Houghton and Fogarty have said that non-accurate or incorrect estimates have often caused to misstatements in audit report (Gray & Manson, 2007).
According to an article in the CPA Journal, the accounting profession has long contended that an audit conducted in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards (GAAS) provides reasonable assurance that there are no material misstatements contained within financial statements. Suggest at least two (2) alternative methods that auditors can use to provide a more concrete level of assurance to investors. Provide support for your responses with examples of such methods in use.
) There was a lack of adequate cut-off procedures to ensure the timely recording of certain period-end accruals. This resulted in an audit adjustment of $3,578,000. The benchmark for overall materiality is $3,508,000, I would consider the audit adjustment of $3,578,000 a material misstatement. Control environment, principle 2 the board of directors and management exercise oversight of development and performance of internal controls. Due to the severity and material weakness of lack of adequate cutoff procedures to ensure timely recording of period end accruals. Management and the board of directors should evaluate performance of internal control activities including adherence to standards of conduct and expected levels of competence. In
4. Additional testing may still be required even if the error is corrected by the client. Many other errors during the month of April could have occurred on the accounting clerk’s watch that the auditor needs to do further testing to be sure no material misstatements are present. Some of these testing could be seeing what other duties the accounting clerk had during that month. Checking the client’s internal control for the entire entity could also be necessary to ensure that controls are in place for training employees that may need to fill the roles of a peer.
Mathematics is a logical and precise subject. Without precision in math everything is imprecise. A modest inaccuracy can produce a catastrophe. For example, if a doctor fails to calculate the correct amount of medicine to give a patient, it could result in a serious complication, such as death. A further example is the logic and precision it takes to construct a building. If there is one minor miscalculation the whole building could collapse, causing mass destruction.
al, 2012, p. 214). Therefore, a material misstatement may not be detected during the audit. In addition, the audit may not detect errors under the materiality level, whether resulting from error, fraud, or misappropriation of assets. Anderson, Olds, and Watershed may decline to express an opinion or issue a report if the firm is unable to complete the audit for any reason.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate (Louwers & Reynolds, 2007). We believe that the audit evidence obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
We believe that each set of data has its strengths and weakness. The balance sheet data available for Pinnacle Manufacturing is extremely helpful in evaluating whether certain income statement items could be misstated. As an example, to know the trend in the asset Accounts Receivable: Trade made evaluating the income statement item Bad Debt expense easier. As a result, the financial data for the parent Pinnacle could be cross-referenced more easily.
Two different but similar forms of writing are able to be tied down into one general but specific category. In the book, Mistakes Were Made (but not by me), by Elliot Aronson and Carol Tavris, Aronson and Tavris commentates on events that people go through. The book is mainly about Elliot Aronson’s and Carol Tavris’ opinion on how people behave and should behave when caught in tough situations. Instead of focusing on one main character in the book, each section of the book illustrates a different person 's’ situation and that situation would correspond with a specific theme in the chapter. Throughout the book, Aronson and Tavris give us a broad idea of how some psychological thinking/processes comes into play, each psychological concept corresponds to a chapter or section in the book, these ideas are: confirmation bias, revision of memories, self-justification, pyramid of choice, cognitive dissonance, blind spots, closed loops, reducing cognitive dissonance, blaming, self-justification (for the greater good), and (sunk costs). Another form of writing, “Wrong Answer”, by Rachel Aviv, is an article focusing on the main idea of a school going through tough times and the outcome of the actions taken by the staff. The article revolves around Parks Middle School in Atlanta. The teachers and staff in Parks Middle School were caught cheating and changing the answers students submitted for standardized tests, and this little mess resulted in hundreds of teachers being laid off and
During the performance of this integrated audit, require numerous judgments about the internal control and overall financial reporting and how well it addresses risks of material misstatements within the financial statements (AICPA, 2014). After re-evaluating the previous errors found from the previous audit, the audit team found the corrective actions to be appropriate and justified in elimination of human error by implementing additional checks and balances within the manual process. No additional misstatements have been found and all internal controls off the financial reporting seem appropriate and just.
Tolerable misstatement should be established for all balance sheet accounts (except “retained earnings” because it is the residual account). Tolerable misstatement need not be allocated to income statement accounts because many misstatements affect both income statement and balance sheet accounts and misstatements affecting only the income statement are normally less relevant to users.
“Audit committee members or their agents may proactively examine areas, functions, and personnel where collusive fraud risk is reasonably likely to be perpetrated,” (Zmags). The search for fraud, even if performed in the same location multiple times, may continue until the audit committee feels confident that they have ruled out the probability that fraud is prevalent. One of the biggest risks of fraud is management override of controls, requiring the extensive search for risk in, “journal entries and other adjustments and reviewing accounting estimates for possible biases that could result in material misstatements,” (Nysscpa).
Following the risk assessment procedures, substantive procedures are designed and conducted to detect material misstatements of relevant assertions. Substantive procedures include analytical procedures and tests of details. Analytical procedures involve evaluations of financial statement information by a study of relationships among financial and nonfinancial data. Tests of details may be divided into three types. One test is the test of account balances to address whether there are misstatements in the ending balance of an account. In the case of Crazy Eddie, auditors should have put greater attention to inventory and accounts payable accounts. The second test is a test of classes of transactions to determine whether particular types of transactions have been properly accounted for during the period. Crazy Eddies fraudulently classified these transshipping transactions as retail sales to inflate its sales revenue and continue growth at existing stores. A key ratio for retailers is to compare growth in existing stores to growth from new stores. The third and final test is a test of disclosures to evaluate whether financial statement disclosures are properly presented. Crazy Eddie prepared bogus debit memos of over $20 million to understate accounts payable.
An important function of the accounting field is to provide external users of financial statements with assurance that the financial information being presented is both reliable and accurate. This basic function of accounting is so important that there is an entire field of experts, called auditors, dedicated to assuring its proper performance. Throughout history there have been many instances in which the basic equilibrium between an institution and current/potential investor has been threatened due to a lack of accountability and trust between the two parties. This issue has been the catalyst for many discussions regarding the proper procedures a firm should follow in order to provide