Understanding Enzymes Essay examples

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2-19-15 BISC 220 Lab Report 1 TA: Anh Nguyet Vu Activity of the Porcine Pancreas α-Amylase Enzyme Under Different Concentration Introduction: Enzymes are specialized protein structures that increase the rate of reactions without changing chemical equilibrium between reactants and products (Cooper, 2000). These enzymes have a distinct chemical composition that constructs an active site for substrates to bind to; this is the location where the substances come together to from an enzyme-substrate complex, which makes forming a product possible. The shape of the molecule is extremely important to its function. Enzymes are composed of unique three-dimensional conformations, due to the complex folding during the secondary, tertiary, and…show more content…
All enzymes function most effectively in their optimal conditions, changes in temperature, pH, and concentration will likely change the shape of the enzyme, otherwise called denaturation, causing it to lose function. The two simple ways to identify if a protein is effective is by studying the rate of appearance of a product and the rate of disappearance in a substrate (Smith, 2005). In November 2003, the department of chemical engineering at Yildiz Technical University conducted a study investigating the significance of pH, temperature, viscosity, concentration, and other factors that may effect the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch, and they also searched for the optimum concentration, pH, and temperature. In the experiment for concentration, they used α-amylase produced by Bacillus in a stirred batch reactor. Reactions were carried out with 10 g/L starch, at pH 6.5, and at a temperature of 60 oC. When the enzyme concentration was increased from 0.2-2.0, enzyme activity and hydrolysis values increased from 31.0% to 84.0% and from 69.0% to 85.0%, respectively. The optimum enzyme concentration for hydrolysis was achieved as 1.2 g/L. At concentrations of past 1.2 g/L, starch hydrolysis rate did not change significantly (Dilek, 2004). It is reasonable to predict that if a similar experiment was to be done, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase will result in a faster rate of disappearance. The experiment conducted at the University of
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