Understanding Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I

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Understanding Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 from an Epidemiological, Animal Model, Cognitive and Neurological Perspective ***Look for MORAN, L 2014 Paper*** Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is characterized by secondary infections, cognitive and behavioral impairments, and neurological impairments (Reid et al. 2001; Vigorito et al. 2007; Lashomb et al. 2009; Moran et al. 2014; Bertrand et al. 2014; Roscoe et al. 2014). In 1996, the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), which combines three or more antiretroviral drugs in combination, improved life expectancy for those with HIV-1 (CDC, 2014). However, despite the advent of CART, the total incidence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive impairment has remained the same (Moran et al. 2012). HIV-1 can be characterized by studies conducted in epidemiology, the creation of the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat model, studies of spatial learning, and dendritic alterations in HIV-1 rats. Many studies have focused on understanding the prevalence of HIV-1 among childbearing women, and the number of children living with HIV-1 (Gwinn, et al. 1991; Davis et al. 1995; Chiriboga et al. 2005). In 1994, vertically acquired transmission of HIV-1 from mother to infant accounted for 92% of all new cases of AIDS in the United States (Davis et al. 1995). Davis et al. (1995) estimated HIV prevalence between 1978 and 1993 by using data from the national HIV survey of childbearing women, the national AIDS case surveillance
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