Germany became a unified country in 1871 under the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck. The separate states up until this time were independent, Prussia being the strongest and most influential, followed by Austria. There are several contributing factors to the unification of Germany, the most influential of which being the leadership of Otto Von Bismarck. The three wars that Prussia fought with Denmark, Austria and France also played significant roles in the unification of the German states. Another factor to consider is the increase in support of nationalism around Western Europe at the time, and the changes in German society. Through an evaluation of these factors and relevant sources one can
3. In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy wasn’t unified. Italy was made up of independent states that nationalist wanted unified, but failed. Mazzini was “the most important nationalist leader in Europe and brought new fervor to the cause” (690). Mazzini desperately wanted Italy to be united and it finally was and became the Italian Republic. In 1860, the country shaped boot became a nation-state. After the war with Austria, “the forces of romantic republican nationalism compelled Cavour to pursue the complete unification of northern and southern Italy” (691).
The Italian Unification was a political and social movement where the different states of the Italian peninsula were to combine into a single Italy. The Italian Unification occurred close in time to the German Unification, which occurred only one year later. The Unification of Italy was a widely controversial topic discussed by many italian citizens and leaders during the 19th century. Many people destined for Italy to be unified as one country, a country that they considered to be stronger overall when compared to the individual countries, and would also create a new national identity and rid Italy of civil problems, like wars and revolutions that were occurring at the time. Others despised the ideas of Italian Unification, jumping ahead
There were three obstacles in the way of Italian unification: Austria, France, and the Roman Catholic Church. Austria ruled all of Northern Italy and thus did not want to give it up. This mindset was similar to the mindset of the French who also ruled land and were also very involved in Italian politics. Because Italian unification would greatly limit their ability to govern in Italy the French also opposed Italian Unification. The last and final obstacle was the Roman Catholic Church which opposed Italian unification because the Pope would have to give up his land, the Papal States. Eventually people started to take action and start nationalistic movements against the Austrians, French, and the Roman Catholic Church. In 1832 Joseph Mazzini, also known as the Father of Nationalism, created a group called “Young Italy” through which he spread his nationalistic views to the Italian Youth. In the end Camillo Benso di Cavour, the prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, another revolutionary made a pan and slowly united Italy to form one country. The same nationalistic movement also occurred in Germany which left Germany united as well. In response to all of the violent nationalistic movements the idea of integration was born.
Between 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars, and 1850 the German states experienced a growth of nationalism and the desire for unity. The obstacles to German unification were religious divisions, rulers’ fear of losing power, and the opposition from Austria. The tension and rivalry that existed between the two largest German states intensified and the existing religious divisions and made the possibility of unification more difficult.
There is a difference seen between Americans and Germans in the way politics are viewed. Considering the rough past with political leaders that Germany has endured, they have a reason to view it differently. This could also be attributed to building up a country that has lost everything. Germany is a country that has seen many trials and tribulations, to get to where they are. Therefore, they have many different tendencies than other countries. For Germans, they have a sense of verbindlich that is related to politics on a large scale.
The Unification of Italy (1815-1871), is one of the most debatable periods of Italy’s modern history. The Risorgimento (in Italian) was the governmental movement of the Italian Peninsula that combined the different states of the Italian Peninsula into one governmental and cultural state known as the Kingdom of Italy. What sparked the beginning of the Italian unification movement was the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), an assembly of ambassadors that’s purpose was to reform Europe, after the effects of the Napoleonic Wars. There were few attempts at making Italy fully unified. Due to their efforts towards unifying Italy, the three most important and influential leaders of the Italian Unification were Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi,
During the 1850’s and 60’s, both Germany and Italy unified, and disrupted the old Balance of Power. Both unifications, came to be because of Chancellors, Count Cavour for Italy, and Otto Von Bismarck for Germany. Both men knew the neede other countries help, to unite. Italy first went to France, promising them land in central Italy, if they would help defeat the Austrians. France won two major battles, but Napoleon III thought the war was becoming too expensive, so he made a secret peace treaty with Austria. This meant Italy only won one of the territories they wanted. It wasn’t until Garibaldi, that Italy United. He lead a small band of soldiers known as the Red Shirts, who were know for the red shirts, and their guerrilla warfare tactics.
Its is important to not that both unification processes require a lot of work and a confident leader. Although the Italian unification required a change in leadership, the motivation was still the same goal. Germany had Otto Bismark, Italy had Camillo Cavour. Bismark was know as “bloody iron”, his thought of unification were for survival, he included strong force to gain independence for
Following World War II, the countries France, Britain and the United States together with the Soviet Union, divided Germany into four regions amid occupational forces. Germany soon partitioned as two separate states known as East Germany, estranged when the Soviet Iron Curtain effectuated a fortified border, and West Germany controlled by the remaining countries. What’s more, the country would emerge deeply divided along incompatible political ideology traveling in opposite directions. As a result, a burgeoning and prosperous democracy quickly developed in West Germany, whereas the economic realities of an oppressive communist regime ruled East Germany. Located in the midst of this dichotomous environment was the former capital known as Berlin,
Bismarck was the first of two Bismarck-class battleships built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Named after Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the primary force behind the unification of Germany in 1871, the ship was laid down at the Blohm & Voss shipyard in Hamburg in July 1936 and launched in February 1939. Work was completed in August 1940, when she was commissioned into the German fleet. Bismarck and her sister ship Tirpitz were the largest battleships ever built by Germany, and two of the largest built by any European power.
The period of one hundred years spanning from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid twentieth century was one hundred years of monumental change. It saw the end of American slavery, the creation and collapse of unified German Empire, the creation of Eastern European nation states that emerged from the wreckage of the Austro-Hungarian Empire only to fall to the Soviet Union within a few decades, two world wars, the invention of cars and their erasure of horses from everyday transportation, the development of nuclear weapons, and the novel concept of photographs become televisions in the home of the average American family. This period of radical change was made possible by men who saw the possibility of changing the world and perused it. Regimes fell, borders were redrawn, and from the ranks of revolutionaries the leaders who would create new orders rose. Those with innovative ideas, creativity, and the right combination of skills and resources created the material goods that shaped these crucial years. But as the world progressed at an alarming rate, there were those who wished to preserve the traditions and values of the past. This desire existed even among the same minds who brought about the revolutions of the era, and they found themselves struggling to find the middle ground between these two different objectives. Among them were American automobile manufacturer Henry Ford, Mexican President Profirio Diaz, and the Turkish President Mustafa Kamal. While the latter two
The background on Risorgimento and Giuseppi Garibaldi’s role in the unification of Italy sparked my curiosity about the impact unification had on national and regional identities in Italy, and the effect these identities have on the way the world perceives the people of Italy as opposed to the way they see each other. It seems to me that Garibaldi and the unification process must have had a profound effect on the people of Italy and the way they see themselves fitting into the nation-state as a whole. I would imagine that many of these questions do not have clear answers, but rather complicated explanations that lead to even more questioning.
Obviously, the newly united Italian state was greeted with much celebration. Unfortunately, it was also only a start. In truth, fundamental problems still plagued the country and had to be addressed if complete hegemony was to be achieved: firstly, the new Kingdom of Italy suffered from extreme backwardness and secondly, it was still deeply divided. The new Italy was split between north and south, between cities and countryside, between regions, between cities and localities,