Essay about Unification of Germany

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Unification of Germany

On January 18, 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed宣佈æˆç«‹. It is a turning point轉æ©é»ž in the European history, and was one of the remote causesé å› that led to the outbreak of the First World War. In fact, the success of German unification was due to the interplay互相交織 of many factors.

Ideological -----------

a. Liberalism: Ideas of liberalism had been sown by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. During the upheaval巨變, such French ideals of liberty, equality and fraternityåšæ„› were spread to Germans. Besides, a varietyå„種 of Napoleon's reforms like those in education, trade, administration, taxation and laws had encouraged the
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Her population and size were almost doubled. She also shared dual leadership with Austria in the German Confederationå¾·æ„å¿—é‚¦è¯ (the Bund). Prussia was so in a strong position to challenge Austria in the German family.

c. Lesson教訓 of 1848 Revolution: Nationalism and liberalism went hand in hand during the 1848 Revolution. The Frankfurt Assembly法蘭克ç¦è­°æœƒorganized by unarmedæ‰‹ç„¡å¯¸éµ and idealistic professors and university students attempted in vain失敗to create a liberal and united Germany. Henceforth自此, nationalism, or better say, Realpolitikç¾å¯¦æ”¿æ²», instead of liberalism, became the chief driving force動力 of the German unification movement. As Bismarck said in 1862, "The great question of the day shall not be decided by speeches言論 and resolutions決議 of the majority, …. which was proven a failure in 1848, …. but by blood and iron." Besides, that Prussia did not abolish the liberal constitution granted in 1848 made her popular with Germans.

d. Rise of William I: In 1861 King Federick William IV腓特力å¨å»‰å››ä¸– died and was succeeded by William I. He never forgot the humiliationæ¥è¾± of 1850 imposed by Austria but appointed right men in right positions知人善任. He was determined to strengthen the Prussian army
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