C228 – Community Health Nursing – Task 2 Renee Todd Western Governors University Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a severe acute respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus named MERS-CoV. It is believed that the virus is found in camels and passed on to humans who are in contact or around infected animal. These camels are mainly located in Egypt, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia (WHO, 2015a). Those infected with MERS exhibit fever, cough, and shortness of breath, pneumonia, and diarrhea. Severe cases require patient to be put on mechanical ventilation or in an intensive care unit. It is also known to cause kidney failure and septic shock. The elderly, persons who are immunosuppressed, those who
The organism adheres to the epithelial cells in its host by pilli. This opportunistic pathogen can affect people of all ages and specifically targets patients that have immune deficiencies, debilitating diseases, and infants in the NICU. Patients are at greater risk of contracting the organism if they have recently had a surgery, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter, arterial catheterization, inhalation medication therapy, tracheal tubes, or have low apgar scores. It can cause a variety of diseases and infections such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, keratoconjunctivitis, osteomyelitis, keratitis, endocarditis, cutaneous infections, and endophthalmitis. (Currey,
Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Encounter and history: Escherichia coli are gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that are often used in laboratory studies and are usually harmless, residing in the human digestive tract as part of the normal flora. E. coli 0157:H7 is a pathogenic strain of E. coli that was first identified as a cause of disease in the United States in 1982, during an investigation into an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness. The organism is also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) because it causes abdominal pain with diarrhea that may contain blood. It lives in the intestines of healthy cattle and can contaminate meat during slaughter. It is believed that the widespread use of antibiotics by American farmers has
The disease is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It is mainly found in small rodents like rats and it can be spread to human through flea bites or via close contact with infected rodents or human.
The orgimsms involved in Escherichia coli 0157 is an anaerobic bacterium which is shaped like a rod and is Gram-negative. Escherichia is a foodborne pathogen which causes a variety of disease in humans worldwide. Cattle are the reservoir to the diseases. Between 1% and 50% of healthy cattle carry or
Chlamydia Trachomatis Introduction: Chlamydia Trachomatis is the organism responsible for diseases such as trachoma and the STD Chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common STD in the United States, with about 4 million new cases diagnosed every year.
In response to these comments, it was then that the FDA added three additional pathogens to the list of qualifying pathogens: Coccidiodes species, Cryptococcus species, and Helicobacter pylori. Coccidiosis species, Cryptococcus species, and Helicobacter pylori. Coccidiosis is a disease caused by fungi from the genes of Cryptococcus that affect living organisms such as humans and animals. Living organisms usually contract this by inhaling the fungi, thus resulting in lung infection that can travel to the brain causing further harm for the organism. Two individuals were first identified with the fungus between 1894 and 1895. The Cryptococci’s can be found worldwide. The main way that disease is spread is also through inhalation with the particular fungus that happens to be associated with several species of bird, particularly old pigeon waste and bat guano.
This drug has been used for more than 20 years, but there was limited information about how it performs throughout the body. In 2002, a study was conducted that resulted in three findings. Imidocarb dipropionate is effectively spread throughout the tissues, a prolonged period was required for complete elimination from the tissues, and it is fully sequestered in the vascular and extra vascular compartment. The liver reported to be the main source for storage of this drug. The disadvantages of using imidocarb are dose dependent hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and rising levels of mortality and morbidity. It was unknown until the Texas outbreak whether horses could be ridden of infection completely, or if horses that had recovered could still carry the pathogen (Minamiji-Corp, 2013; Sumbria and Singla, 2015). The main objective to combatting this disease is to eliminate haemoprotozoan parasites from equines. T. equi is more difficult to fight off with babesiacidal drugs than B. caballi. In the past, dyes such as Trypan blue were used to thwart B. caballi, but not for T. equi. This dye would cause a discoloration of the animal’s tissues. Other drugs such as diminazene, diaceturate, imidocarb and amicarbalide are also effective in eliminating EP infections. Antitherilerial compounds, parvaquone and bupurvaquone have shown the
Differentiating the Eimeria spp. causing cecal coccidiosis in turkeys is challenging. To obtain benchmark biological data for Eimeria gallopavonis Hawkins 1952 and E. meleagridis Tyzzer 1929 and to support the stability of the species concept for each, genetically-typed, single oocyst derived lines of E. gallopavonis Weybridge strainand E. meleagridis USAR97-01 wereused to re-describe the biological, pathological and morphological features of these parasites.Oocysts of E. meleagridis and E. gallopavonis overlap in dimensions but oocysts of the former have a single polar granule compared with multiple in the latter. Mature first generation meronts of E. gallopavonis were observed histologically as early as 48 hours post infection alongside the villi in jejunum (before and after Meckel’s diverticulum), ileum, cecal neck and rectum, but not cecal pouches.
We read with great interest a case report by Tosya et al. on isolated hydatidosis involving the ascending aorta . Cystic hydatid disease still represents a neglected disease despite being highly endemic in a myriad of livestock-raising regions worldwide, and this case presentation makes evident how diverse the localization and clinical manifestations of this infection can be. With this comment, our aim is to extend the discussion by highlighting several important issues.
Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is only a recently found human infectious agent, originating in the Middle East (Zaki et al 2012). MERS infections are due to an individual being infected by a coronavirus (CoV), more specifically the MERS-CoV. Corona virus symptoms are typically acute, upper and lower respiratory infections
haemofelis primarily occurs through the bites of arthropods such as ticks and fleas, or through blood transfusions that use the blood of an infected cat (Peteducation.com). M. haemofelis bacterium can also be passed from queen to kitten and through direct contact between fighting cats; as the majority of cases occur in male cats, feral cats or cats that roam, and cats that are under six years of age (Pededucation.com). These bacterium cannot be cultured in a clinic or in a research lab as they require a living host to survive (Marvistavet.com). Fortunately, they can easily be seen when a smear using a sample of an infected cat’s blood is stained and placed under a microscope; appearing as short chains of 3 to 6 small, darkly stained coccoid bodies attached to the cell membrane of erythrocytes (Merck Veterinary
Jaina Patel July 20, 2015 Synopsis of the Comparison of Real-Time PCR and Antigen Assays for Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Blood Donors Introduction: Hepatitis E virus, is a liver disease made up of a single stranded RNA virus mainly found in developing countries across the world. Obtained via inadequate water
INTRODUCTION: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is viral in origin called "Neethling virus" belongs to a family of Poxviridae which includes pox virus for both sheep and goat (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus), and it is infectious and eruptive disease the insects play important role as a vector by biting specially within wet summer and autumn months. All cattle breed susceptible to infected and there is no evidence or study present that a specific age or breed of cattle are more than others to exposed to infection, generally; younger are more severely affected. Spreading of the infection may occur less commonly by direct contact through saliva, skin lesions, milk, semen, or nasal discharge of infected animals.
A significant challenge in estimating the burden of echinococcosis is that of missing data. In wealthy countries there are often good data sets from public health statistics or from hospital records. Thus relatively accurate estimates of the incidence of disease can be made. However, most of the burden of echinococcosis is in developing nations with 40% being in China alone (Budke et al., 2006). In many areas even if treatment is available reporting systems are inaccurate and hence there is likely to be significant underestimates of the true numbers affected by the disease. This is illustrated by the estimated 75% underreporting in Chile and Uzbekistan of cystic echinococcosis (Nazirov et al., 2002; Serra et al., 1999). For communities where treatment is largely unavailable such as remote herdsmen communities on the Tibetan plateau most of the data must come from carefully planned surveys which will give an indication of point prevalences based on, for example, cross sectional ultrasound surveillance studies. Such data can be used to model the likely number of cases in society and the disease burden. A further problem is that even utilizing such data, ultrasound will not diagnose pulmonary echinococcosis and therefore this must be accounted for as this could be an additional 10% or more cases. Estimates of the prevalence of undiagnosed cases need to be undertaken as there is