Homeostasis is what allows our internal system to maintain at a constant condition. In order to maintain equilibrium the body must communicate using the control system. It is essential that the body monitors its conditions whether that be blood pressure, thirst sensation or body temperature (this is either gained or lost). Negative feedback is most important and comes first, this allows for the body to correct itself and get back to a set point when it is off track. There are three components that link with this feedback. A sensor (receptor) sends signals to the control center that something is unusual, the control center compares the many values of our normal body range and decides
A cell is the basic unit of life, essential to maintaining the physiology of the larger organism. In animals, certain organelles metabolize food into energy, and then uses the energy for repair, growth and reproduction. Similarly, chloroplasts in plant cells transform sunlight into energy, a process known as photosynthesis.
P4- Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body.
There are several body systems, for example the digestive system, the respiratory system and cardiovascular system. I am going to look at the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. They are important because they help people grow, reproduce and maintain life. The body system needs energy for it to function. Our body gets energy from digesting food and using it in the respiration process.
The cardiovascular system - The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting nutrients and removing gaseous waste from the body. It consists of the heart, which powers the whole process, the veins, arteries, and capillaries, which deliver oxygen to tissue at the cellular level. The cardiovascular system carries blood that is low in oxygen away from the heart to the lungs via arteries, where oxygen levels are restored through the air once oxygenated, this blood is then carried throughout the body via arteries, keeping our organs and tissue alive. The cardiovascular system is the workhorse of the body, continuously moving to push blood to the cells. If this important system ceases its work, the body dies.
The 3 types of cellular transport that I am including are Osmosis, Active Transport, and Facilitated Diffusion. Osmosis allows water to move from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration until both sides are equal. During Osmosis, only water molecules can pass through, and sugar molecules cannot pass through the membrane. This process requires no energy from the cell. An example of osmosis is in an hypotonic red blood cell, which will cause the cell to burst due to the cell having too much water. Cells can regulate water concentrations through osmoregulation. Active transport requires energy because it pumps solute against its concentration gradient. Energy for this work is usually supplied by ATP. To
A cell needs to perform diffusion in order to survive. Substances, including water, ions, and molecules that are required for cellular activities, can enter and leave cells by a passive process such as diffusion. Diffusion is random movement of molecules in a net direction from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration order to reach equilibrium. Diffusion does not require any energy input. Diffusion is needed for basic cell functions - for example, in humans, cells obtain oxygen via diffusion from the alveoli of the lungs into the blood and in plants water
Define equilibrium potential: Equilibrium channels can be calculated using the Nernst Equation and the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Equilibrium potentials are membrane potentials when an ion does not diffuse through the membrane. It is also associated with potassium leaving the cell through leak channels.
The cardiovascular systems function is to pass blood through ones body keeping their muscles oxygenated, to keep nutrients that are needed in the body and to help get rid of metabolic waste. The cardiovascular system is made up of three components, these are; the heart, the blood and the blood vessels.
Diffusion is an automated process by where the levels of oxygen, water and carbon dioxide pass over a ‘semi-permeable membrane’ between the walls of the cells and blood vessels to create a level environment. This membrane only allows these three elements to pass whilst retaining other elements such as blood cells, hence semi-permeable. The high concentration on one side of the cells transfers through this membrane until the level is equal on both sides.
A single-celled eukaryote or protist can carry chlorophyll (it can be an autotrophic, photosynthetic, "alga"), it can eat other organisms (it can be an organotrophic, "protozoan" "animal"), or it may do both.