Essay on Unit 4 Dttls Assignment

2665 WordsFeb 3, 201211 Pages
Unit 4: Theories and principles for planning and enabling learning In modern day teaching, the onus is shifting further and further away from teacher dictated methods of educational delivery, to methods that ensure the learner is placed at the heart of teaching, and every individual within the classroom is considered and catered for. Advances in technology available to teachers has contributed to a broadening of teaching styles, but this has mainly come about through the need to differentiate teaching more effectively and break down the barriers that exist between teacher and learner. Engaging every learner is a difficult task and requires the teacher to have a plethora of knowledge of teaching methods and theories. Learners may differ…show more content…
Operant conditioning is a theory put forward by Thorndike. This theory waits for a desired behaviour to occur and then rewards it. It builds somewhat on the work done by Watson regarding trial and error learning. Perhaps the most prominent or influential behaviourist work is that done by Skinner. Skinner adopted an operant approach to behaviourism and famously conducted experiment using rats in specially designed boxes. Skinner’s ideas revolved around the presence of a reinforcer to cause a desired behaviour to be repeated. This could be in the form of a primary reinforcer (a basic need like food) or a secondary reinforcer (such as money or praise). In the case of his rats, Skinner effectively trained them to pull certain levers to release food. Initially, the release was accidental but after a while, the rats learned to associate the arrival of food with the pressing of a lever. Skinners work revolved heavily around the need for reinforcement, reward, punishment and feedback. The scheduling and delivery of these things was also important to Skinner who suggested the timing of something like a reward was paramount to its success at brining about long term changes in behaviour. Similarly, he suggested giving punishment should occur immediately after the event in question and in a consistent manner. Also, it was skinner who introduced the concept of successive approximations – small

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