Universal School Based Violence Prevention Programs

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Universal school-based violence prevention programs represent an important means of reducing violent and aggressive behavior as found by Hahn et al (2007) in their study about the United States. The findings by Durlak et al (2011) from a meta-analysis of school-based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) programs involving pupils from kindergarten through high school, have also added to the growing empirical evidence regarding the positive impact of SEL programs on improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, and behavior. In addition, macro-strategies through appropriate legislations (like those protecting against discriminatory practices and safeguarding basic human rights), policy formulation, and resource allocation mechanism can address major socioeconomic and environmental determinants of mental health (WHO 2005). Macro-Strategies deal with policies of improving nutrition, housing, access to education, strengthening of community networks, and taking policy actions against additive substances (WHO 2005). 4. Interventions in promoting healthy development environment for children There is a general consensus that a life course approach to preventing mental disorders is the most effective policy that recognizes that there are key developmental stages and transition points, healthy start in the early years is of foundational importance. The following sub-sections deal with evidence-based early childhood programs widely practiced in countries. 4.1
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