Urbanization and Urban Growth

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Population distribution: Urbanization and Urban growth An urban area is defined as a town or city plus its adjacent suburban fringes with a population of between10,000-50,000. A rural area usually is defined as an area with a population of less than 2,500 people. Urbanization is the process in which people increasingly move from rural areas to densely populated cities; also involves the transformation of rural areas into urban areas. A country’s degree of urbanization is the percentage of its population living in an urban area. Urban growth is the rate of increase of urban populations. Urban areas grow in two ways: by natural increase (more births than deaths) and by immigration (mostly from rural areas). Migration is influenced by…show more content…
In addition, high population densities in urban areas can increase spread of infectious diseases and physical injuries. ▪ The cities affect the environmental health of rural areas and the planet along with the health of their inhabitants. Cities grow at the expense of the surrounding countryside, which geographers refer to as the hinterland. The loss of farmland and forested area and the drain of water, energy, and food resources can lead to a loss of ecologic integrity and reduced carrying capacity in the rural hinterland as well as surrounding smaller settlements. ▪ As human settlements grow to become large industrial centers, further modification of the physical environment occurs. Some of these modifications can lead to increased risk from natural hazards, which include floods, landslides, earthquakes, cyclones, and volcanic eruptions. The increased potential for exposure to natural hazards associated with the urban setting is part of urban environmental risk. ▪ One of the obvious changes associated with urbanization of a natural landscape is the increase in impermeable surfaces. Roads, parking lots, and buildings all modify natural surfaces, which has a significant impact on the hydrologic cycle. The impact of urbanization on the hydrologic cycle comes with the depletion of groundwater resources. If aquifers become depleted, they may undergo compaction. ▪ Large urban centers can contribute to atmospheric and even
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