Urinary Tract Infections ( Cautis )

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Background and Significance
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are caused by transmission of bacteria to the urinary tract via the urinary catheter during catheter insertion, via the catheter lumen, or by handling of the catheter drainage bag (Mori, 2014). Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for about 35% of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and about 80% of the UTIs are related to the presence of indwelling urinary catheter (IUC). CAUTIs are a significant problem affecting the patients as well as the health care system as they are linked with increased morbidity and mortality, increased health care expenses, and extended hospitalization (Gould, 2015).
CAUTIs can result to patient’s complications such urethritis, urethral strictures, bloody urine, bladder obstruction and sepsis. In addition, the catheter drainage bag may be a reservoir of pathogens that can result to more critical HAIs (Apostolopoulou, 2015). Approximately 13,000 deaths are associated with UTIs every year. A total health care cost of approximately $0.4 – $0.5 billion is spent for CAUTI incidences and it’s complications in the United States annually. The length of hospital stay related to CAUTIs extends from two to four days (Gould, 2015).
As of October 1st, 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began withholding reimbursement to hospitals for treatment of HAIs including the CAUTIs. The duration of the catheter use has been identified as a major risk factor for
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