Urinary tract infections (UTI’s) are much too common in the elderly population (Lim, Whitehurst, Usoro, & Ming Ng, 2014). Some residents who develop these nosocomial infections will become septic, leading to 10% mortality within 7 days (Saint, S., Kaufman, S.R., Rogers, M.A., Baker, P.D., Boyko, E.J., Lipsky, B.A., 2006). UTI’s can cost between $749 and $1,007 per infection (Meddings, J., Rogers, M.A.M, Krein, S.L., Fakih, M.G., Olmsted, R.N., & Saint, S., 2013) and according to Spector, Limcango, Williams, Rhodes, & Hurd, (2013), UTI’s are 23% of the total avoidable hospitalizations. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), consider
31. Urinary retention increases the risk for __urinary tract infections (UTIs)__ in older adults. Aging men with __benign prostatic hyperplasia__ are at risk for this problem.
Some study said that rUTIs are not life-threatening, however, lowered quality of life and increased health-care costs are inevitable in these diseases.7 Patients with rUTI may experience anxiety of sudden acute episodes and psychological burden.8 In other studies, urinary tract infection may lead to various complications, starting from increased length of stay in hospital until higher mortality rate. Based on a study by Mitchell et al, out of 1.73% of admitted patients who had UTI, there were 3.5 days extra length of stay compared to those without UTI. People with infection also had 2.3 times more chance to die during their admission.9 Moreover, in The United States, annual cost of UTI are >$3.5 billion, whereas in Italy the cost of UTI and rUTI was around 240 and 140 euro per episodes respectively.5,10 Thus, preventive measures should be done to solve this
Urinary tract infection also referred to as UTI is the second most common infection in the body. The urinary tract system in your body which includes the bladder and kidneys makes urine and carries it out of your body. When germs get into the urinary tract system an infection is typically formed. UTI’s are usually caused when unwanted bacteria enters through the urethra and begins to multiply (www.mayoclinic.org). The bacteria that are normally found in the large intestine and feces are the most common source of a UTI. Sexual intercourse is one of the common causes of urinary tract infections for women, causing bacteria to move up into the urinary tract. Sometimes in a hospital setting a patient who is on a catheter can also get a urinary tract infection.
T.M. was admitted to the sub-acute unit for an UTI. UTI is usually cause by an organism called Escherichia coli. Risk factors for UTI in males can be bladder stones, kidney stones, an enlarge prostate, catheter use, or bacterial prostatitis. Some of the symptoms of UTI are burning sensation when urinating, frequent urination, fever, chills, foul smelling urine, urine retention, and lethargy. T.M. has a diagnosis of BPH and repeated history of UTI which increase his risk for UTI. A short-term goal will be that the patient will be display no UTI sign of symptoms. A long-term goal will be that the patient will demonstrate behavioral techniques to prevent future UTI. To accomplish these goals, the patient should be encouraged to void every 2 to
The urinary tract begins with the kidneys, two bean-shaped organs that skim waste products and excess water from the blood to create urine. A pair of narrow tubes called the ureters carries the urine to the baglike bladder for storage. From there it travels down another tube, the urethra, and leaves the body through the penis or the vulva. In the process, the urine washes away germs from the opening of the urinary system. But sometimes microorganisms slip into the urethra and begin to multiply and inflame its inner lining.
How can you get a UTI, both genders can get the infection but it is a lot more common for females to get a UTI than males, the reason is women are often told to wipe from front to back after using the bathroom for a reason, that’s because the urethra which is the tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body which is located close to the anus. Bacteria from the large intestine can escape the anus and invade the urethra and from there the bacteria travels up to the bladder. Another reason UTI’s are more common with women is they have shorter urethras which allows the bacteria to quickly access the bladder. Lastly having intercourse can introduce the bacteria into the urinary tract so it is always best to urinate after intercourse.
Most urinary tract infections are primarily caused by bacteria that live in the bowel region of the body. The bacterium Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as “E. coli”, causes most UTIs. The urinary tract has several systems to prevent infection. The points where the ureters attach to the bladder act as only one way valves to prevent urine from moving back up toward the kidneys. Urination is intended to wash microbes and any infectious bacteria out of the body. In males, the prostate gland produces secretions that slow down bacterial growth in the urinary tract. In both woman and men, immune defenses try to prevent infections, but despite these safety procedures put in place by the body, infections still do occur in some individuals.
The four specific databases that were used in this research are, Cinahl, Medline, Joanna Briggs and Cochrane Library. All of these databases were chosen because they provided up to date peer reviewed evidence that was relevant to the search terms. This ensures that the evidence that was found was relevant and reliable. The Cinahl website was useful to gather background information on the topic such as how a UTI is contracted and how it effects the body. The Cochrane Library and Medline website was useful to because it gave specific information on studies that had already been done by other researchers. This helped to ensure that the study that is being undertaken was searching for the right results.
Due to weaken immune system, declining organ function, poor sensory perception, and multiple prescribed and over the counter medications, and comorbidities elderly patients are at risk for infections. For many elderly patients the possibility of developing an infection is extremely high, on account of hospitalization or living in long-term care facilities. The most common type of infection acquired in these facilities is urinary tract infections. A urinary tract infection most likely affects the bladder or urethra; more serious urinary tract infections occur in the kidneys. There may be symptoms such as urinary urgency or frequency, but in other cases there are no symptoms at all. This urine infection is caused by gram-negative sepsis.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017), “Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the fourth most common type of healthcare-associated infection, with an estimated 93,300 UTIs in acute care hospitals in 2011. UTIs additionally account for more than 12% of infections reported by acute care hospitals. Virtually all healthcare-associated UTIs are caused by instrumentation of the urinary tract” (p. 7-1).
E.coli was the cause of UTIs. E.coli was difficult to treat because as soon a patient would reach the hospital the bacteria would have already reached the bloodstream.
Urosepsis is sepsis with a source localized to the urinary tract. It is a severe infection, distinguishing it from other urinary tract infections including mild pyelonephritis accounts for 5% of severe sepsis, whereas UTIs account for 40% of nosocomial infections. Usually this infection stems from the nurses not using proper sterile technique when changing foley catheters, obtaining urine specimens from the port or having the adequate time to do proper foley management on these patients. Foley catheters are a flexible tube that passes through the urethra and into the bladder to drain urine which is used in certain cases such as urinary retention. The thin flexible tubes are known to harvest multiple bacteria especially if the foley catheter is left in place over a long period of time. Usually if a patient is in need of a foley catheter it is inserted by the nurse using aseptic technique to decrease the risk of infections. In some cases you may notice some nurses who do use the proper technique but as the nurse to patient ratio has increased there are more and more nurses that are breaking the sterile field while inserting foley catheters and they still continue to insert the tube