Use Of Pharmacological Thromboprophylaxis Into Medical Surgical Patients : A Review Of Current Literature

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Use of Pharmacological Thromboprophylaxis to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis in Medical-Surgical Patients: A Review of Current Literature
Introduction:
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has become a major health concern with 300,000-600,000 of cases in the United States annually and contributes to a significant number of avoidable inpatient costs (C. Dooley, 2013). Venous thromboembolism is also cited as the leading cause of preventable in-patient deaths (Dooley, 2013). Research has indicated that post-operative patients on medical surgical units have a 13-31% risk of deep vein thrombosis without interventions using prophylactic antithrombotic therapy (Alhazzani et al., 2013). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common, yet preventable postoperative
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Quality and Safety Education for Nursing (QSEN): In the nursing field, quality improvement is at the forefront of evidence-based practice. To improve the quality of patient outcomes post operatively, there must be implementation of evidence-based practice within the medical-surgical population to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis and promote patient safety. Evidence-based practice is defined by the Quality and Safety Education of Nursing (QSEN) project as the integration of "best current evidence with clinical expertise and patient/family preferences and values for delivery of optimal health care" (QSEN, 2014). This paper will examine the current available research on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in medical surgical patients by determining the best practice and examining how it is implemented in the clinical setting to improve quality and safety for patients within the healthcare setting (QSEN, 2014).
Overview of Venous Thromboembolisms & Deep vein thrombosis: To understand the use of thromboprophylaxis in medical surgical patient to reduce the incidence of deep vein thrombosis, one must first review the physiology related to the condition. Deep vein thrombosis occurs due to occluded veins or stasis within the veins, which more frequently occurs within the lower extremities. Venous return is often compromised because it goes against the flow of gravity and the
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