Use of Celebrities in Endorsements

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RESEARCH includes research articles that focus on the analysis and resolution of managerial and academic issues based on analytical and empirical or case research Executive Summary How Celebrities are Used in Indian Television Commercials Varsha Jain, Subhadip Roy, Aarzoo Daswani and Mari Sudha The usage of celebrities by the Indian advertising agencies has experienced a phenomenal increase in the last five years. Effective communication between the marketer and the consumers is the need of the hour and celebrity endorsement is a strategy that is perceived as making full use of this opportunity. Most of the countries have adopted this strategy as an effective marketing tool and even India is carving out space for…show more content…
46 REVIEW OF LITERATURE According to McCracken (1989), a celebrity could be defined as, “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition when they appear in the advertisement in front of the consumers.” There are multiple roles that a celebrity spokesperson may play (and the roles may not be mutually exclusive) (Kamen, Azhari and Kragh, 1975) in an advertisement such as that of a spokesperson, endorser, provider of a testimonial, or an actor. A spokesperson represents the company or brand like a salesman, while an endorser is associated with the brand even though he may not be an expert in the product category of the brand. In case of testimonials, the superiority of the product is attested by an individual or the personal experience of the celebrity. Lastly, the celebrity actor is only a character in a dramatic presentation in the ad. McCracken (1989) suggested four different modes of celebrity endorsers namely, Explicit mode, Implicit mode, Imperative mode, and the Co-present mode. In the explicit mode, the celebrity announces the endorsement of a product, while in the implicit mode, the celebrity uses verbal or physical communication for the product. In the imperative mode, the celebrity suggests the audience to use the endorsed product while the celebrity only appears with the product in the co-present mode. The study of celebrity
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