Using Alternative Forms Of Safe Power

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Fracking, or high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing, is the process by which natural gas and oil is extracted from deep underground rock. A mixture of chemicals, water and sand is forced against the rock with such high pressure that it fractures the formations of rock, releasing trapped bubbles of natural gas and oil. In many places in the U.S. including California, are using alternative forms of safe power. In many places it is believed natural gas and oil is a good source of energy, but the process of fracking does not spare expense, water, or the well being of the environment. In the state of California, one third of all the energy used comes from natural gas. Although its uses are expanding, its usage can be divided into four…show more content…
California is the second most seismically active state in the U.S. and it has over 15,000 fault lines. Because of the high earthquake activity, deep shale formations are liable to change composition and thickness and have large amounts of fractures, folds and fault lines. Because of the unpredictable nature of these shale composites, the intense disturbance of fracking is a major cause of induced seismicity. It is believed that these seismic events are induced because the injected water mixture lubricates existing faults which can move them enough to cause tremors. Many injection wells are located within miles of active fault lines. Most human caused earthquakes are too slight to be felt, yet there are recorded instances of larger induced earthquakes. In fact, it is estimated that over one half of all 4.5 magnitude earthquakes in the past ten years were caused by fracking. The greatest threat of earthquakes is actually from the underwater storage of fracking wastewater. In 2012, it was estimated that wastewater produced from fracking was sixteen times the volume of the oil produced. The excessive amounts of water needed for fracking competes with other consumers of water in places of water sparsity, and shockingly, most fracking happens in places of water sparsity. Along with water, harsh chemicals are injected into shale wells to induce fracking. Many of these chemicals are harmful to the environment. The
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