Using Porous Organometallic Compounds For Various Material Applications

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In the past century extensive research has been conducted on porous organometallic compounds for use in various material applications. Although numerous compounds containing Lewis bases, such as nitriles and bipyridines and have been reported to be successful at the sorption of small molecules, the desorption of the guest often leads to structural collapse of the host. 1,2 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown to be a valuable class of newer materials that can support permanent porosity upon the evacuation of the framework. Unlike zeolites, which are fully inorganic, the flexibility in the choice of the organic linker comprising the backbone of the MOF structure makes the size of the poragen formed tunable for a wider
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One of the original and still most active fields of research in metal-organic frameworks is in gas separation. While the ability of both rigid and flexible MOFs to adsorb is based on such factors as geometry of the gas as well as sorbate-sorbent interactions, flexible MOFs are also dependent on structural rearrangements and the ability of the pore to change with thermodynamic conditions. Currently, most MOF investigations into gas separation are conducted by measuring the sorption and desorption of specific gases and relating isothermic data. MOFs are being looked to as next generation gaseous adsorbent materials in both industrial and environmental applications.9 One particular gas that is of growing environmental concern is CO2. As a byproduct of human-created combustion activities, particularly in developed nations, the need to capture and sequester CO2 is becoming ever more apparent. In order to adsorb CO2, a metal-organic framework must be functionalized for high selectivity towards the gas as well as possess the necessary enthalpy of adsorption. MOFs with open cation sites such as MOF-74 derivatives, as well as those containing amine functional groups are especially useful.10 The
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