Essay on Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill

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Utilitarianism by John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, in his Utilitarianism, turns morality into a practical problem. His moral theory is designed to help one evaluate his moral principles and senisibilites and be able to ajudicate conflictions in moral conflicts. Mill postulates that actions are right so far as they tend to promote happiness and minimize pain. This theory manifests itself as an impartial promotion of happiness. Morally "right" actions are ones which promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number number of people and reduce pain. Utilitarian moral theories need to be coupled with theories of well-being, so that we can point to what is being maximized through the moral theory's operation. Mill's moral theory is
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Experientialism and the Desire Theory are not totally in conflict with what Mill writes about well-being. In fact there are certain times when Mill's adherence to the Substantive Goods Theory is put into doubt because of cewrtain ideas of the former two which support what Mill says. Despite such similarties, the Substantive Goods Theory manifests itself as a better fit for what Mill says about well-being and how society should encourage people to pursue well-being. Additionally, that theory is consistent with my personal beliefs about what it means to lead a good life.

In Utilitarianism, Mill addresses many objections to his general moral theory of promoting happiness and decreasing pain. Through Mill's rebuttals to the objections, his ideas about well-being become clear. Although his moral theory is important to understand the basis upon which his ideas about well-being sit, they miust stand alone so that one can determine to which theory of well-being Mill adhered. Mill's ideas about well-being spring from his explanation of the difference between contentment and true happiness. Leading up to his ultimate discussion of the distinction, Mill attempts to clear up misunderstandings about what pleasure and happiness are. The swine objection involves misunderstandings about pleasure and the difference between animals and humans, and Mill addresses it in clearing up the misunderstandings. The objection claims that
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