Globally, many countries are increasingly feeling the effects of environmental degradation. This has been occasioned by the increasingly evident effects of poor environmental conservation policy. There are currently taking the brunt of environmental degradation that has been occasioned by rapid the industrialization that has occurred both within and out of the country. “Air pollution has been at fault for a significant portion of the country’s environmental problems. Studies have identified the country’s economic boom as major contributor to this (Jitendra and Tanvi, 42)”. In East Asia, yellow dust it calls “Asian dust” is the biggest issue, which is mostly influenced by China’s industrialization and coal burning electrical generating plants. The main issue concerning South Korea and Japan is the air pollution caused by China's rapid economic growth crossing the boundaries into these two countries, it is blown from China to Korea and Japan causing hazardous air pollution. There causes many problems, it occurs respiratory problems, an increase in incidence of acid rain, highway accidents, and forcing many residents to stay home. Also, dust will enter a human’s mouth and organ which will cause respiratory problems through inhalation. “Air pollutants are gaseous or particulate matter which that have an impact on human health and natural ecosystems” (Lee, Adeel, 134).
As a result of incomplete combustion of fuels, additional by products such as carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) are also formed. Many of these emissions have health and climate impacts on both a local and global level. (Jamin et al, 2004)
A widely studied area in the impacts aviation has is researching air quality. There are two areas which have been getting a lot of attention and becoming more important relating to air quality. The first area is known as fine particulate matter (PM). PM is known as an air pollutant containing tiny particles floating in the air, sometimes creating a foggy, hazy look in the air. Compared to NOx, another compound found in emissions, PM is known to be a greater impact (Waitz, Townsend, Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Greitzer, Kerrebrock, 2004). One challenge the aviation industry is trying to overcome is measuring the PM caused by aircraft and PM caused by outside factors non-aviation related. There are currently no uniformly accepted methods for measuring both the PM and PM precursors from
In the Mojave Desert, the bad air quality is caused mainly by the wildfires, exhaust from vehicles, and power plants in the surrounding areas. The desert’s ecosystem is impacted by elements
Another big problem in polluting places and things is air pollution which can make air foggy, unbreathable, and toxic. According to “34 Facts about Pollution”, the text states breathing the air in Mumbai, India, for just one day is equivalent to smoking 100 cigarettes. One of the things that can cause air pollution is releasing factory fuels and fossil fuels into the air. We also cause it from burning certain things like plastic, chemicals, and other
Whilst strong positive trend in PM concentrations are generally attributed to anthropogenic emissions and natural biogenic emissions, it is also affected by the physical meteorology and climate (Guo et al., 2014; Kirtman, B. et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2016). Climate in China is largely modulated by the East Asian Monsoon and climate teleconnections with the Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Arctic, therefore air quality in China is affected by the variations and change in these climate systems (Cheng et al., 2016; H. Wang et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2012; Zou et al., 2017).
Even if all countries in the world contribute to the air pollution, the developed countries take the leading role on releasing carbon monoxide in the air. This toxic air increases risk of the ozone layer depletion, which potentially would expose UVB radiation at the earth. This UVB radiation has negative consequences on humans, animals, plants and other planetary creatures. In addition to UVB radiation the polluted air by itself can cause serious health problems for humankind. Moreover, this process would cause the earth to become warmer which consequence of global warming. Industries and transportation takes the first place for the source of emissions of air
This chapter of the book discussed some of the pollutants that are discharged into the air from coal-fired utilities. It explained how weather conditions play a role in exposure and explained the measuring criteria for particulates. It explained how some particulates stay in the atmosphere longer and therefore travel a greater distance till exposure. It then discussed federal involvement in the issue and some of the Clear Air legislation that has been passed over the years starting with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. There were six pollutants that were determined to pose the greatest risk, carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter (now subdivided be particle size), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. The final report listed
Stationary and mobile sources contribute to the ozone precursor emission sources, while human and natural sources contribute to particulate material sources. Stationary sources are also known as point sources of pollution because they emit large amount of pollution from a single locations, and include power plants, industrial facilities, and factories. Smaller stationary sources are called areas sources, and they include agricultural burning, house paints, pesticides, and gas stations. Mobile sources, which account for more than half of all air pollution, include vehicles, motorcycles, construction equipment, trains, farm tractors, aircrafts, and utility equipment. Human sources of pollution include agricultural operations, combustion of wood or fossil fuels, and industrial processes. Finally, natural sources of pollution include wildfires and windblown dust. Wildfires in the surrounding mountain ranges have also had significant effects on the air quality in Central Valley, as the smoke exposes people to higher amounts of particulate matter. A study conducted during the 2008 outbreak of wildfires in northern and central California found that concentrations of particulate matter are not only higher, but also more toxic during wildfires compared to normal air from the same region during a comparable
Air quality is also affected by other mechanisms such as airborne toxins that arise from freshwater such as cyanobacteria (Health Implications of Drought…n.d.). Wildfire adds more soot, smoke, and particles to the air (Health Implications of Drought…n.d.). Agricultural dust also pollutes the air through soil erosion from improper farming and exposed bare land in between crops (Drought Measures for Dust Mitigation….n.d.). Increased temperature is not only producing more aeroallergens by earlier flower productions such as pollen and mold spores but also is potential for increasing the allergenicity (A Human Health Perspective .... (n.d.).A research found evidence that particulate matter in the polluted air also affects the environment as it can reduce precipitation in dry regions or seasons and also increase the heat in the atmosphere (Air Pollution a Culprit in Worsening ... (n.d.). A vicious cycle has started where we are creating more pollutants through various activities in everyday life; the environment is becoming warmer, less precipitation, air is getting more condensed. These particulates and toxins threaten health status of the population living there, irritating air passage, worsening chronic and acute respiratory infections (Health Implications of
The biomass and density of trees surrounding each plot were also recorded. A static chamber method was used to measure the fluxes of the three GHG. The method was carried out using a closed cylindrical chamber equipped with a small fan, and gas concentrations were measured with an infrared, non-dispersive scope. There were other more detailed, accurate methods used as well to be more accurate with exact numbers for the concentrations of each gas. The concentrations of each gas were compared between each location and results are as follows: As the thickness of the active layer increased, all three greenhouse gas emissions increased. Carbon dioxide fluxes increased with time since the last fire, with the 1969 fire area having the highest CO2 emissions, and the 2012 fire area having the lowest CO2 emissions. Methane fluxes had a significant increase in the 1990 fire area, and a lower influx in all other fire areas. Nitrous oxide had a high influx in every fire area except for the 1990 area, where the fluxes were significantly lower. Addressed in the discussion, the authors write about how their results indicate that areas affected by fire will take approximately 50 years to fully recover to their pre-fire conditions. As well, areas with a recent fire had much lower soil moisture than areas with a long time since last
In recent years, California’s Central Valley has gone from being America’s breadbasket to a near-dystopian wasteland—a landscape beset with air pollution with strikingly diverse causes. Five of the ten most polluted American cities can be found in this region (Wheeler, Morris and Gordon). This is not surprising given the host of actual and potential causes of air pollution problem in the heart of California. Ground level ozone is a major type of pollution in the Valley that primarily causes summertime “smog,” produced through the photochemical or sunlight-induced reactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District 3). The other type of pollution, particulate matter (PM), refers to small solid or liquid particles that form in the atmosphere through gases or photochemical reactions. While the causes of air pollution in the Central Valley are undoubtedly manifold, the region’s agricultural practices still count as the most substantial factors for this environmental problem; in any case, the Valley’s unique meteorological and topographical conditions exacerbate the level of air pollution.
Data sets measuring water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen levels from land with recent prescribed burns, recent natural burns, and a control, with no recent burns. I would likely be able to obtain water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen levels for land with recent prescribed burns from Manitou Experimental Forest. In order to have a chance to get statistical significance I
Over the past decade, particulate matter (PM) is increasing the air pollution at an exceeding
On June 9, 2012 the High Park Fire took place about 15 miles west of Fort Collins, Colorado. Itwas started by a lightning strike and fueled by high winds and dry vegetation, the fire grew to be the third-largest fire in Colorado history. Residents were instructed to take precautions if they could see or smell smoke, and a Fort Collins hospital reported an increase in emergency room visits related to smoke inhalation. Much of the fuel for the High Park Fire came from stands of trees that have been killed by beetles (BAER Report, 2012). This paper will discuss methods of remote sensing and field activities based on the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy. This strategy will allow