Vaccines And Its Effects On The Disease

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Before vaccines were invented, whenever an individual contracted a disease, it would easily spread to the people who were in contact with the individual. Many became carriers of the disease, resulting in an outbreak. No one was immune from the disease, thus making the vast majority a suitable host for the pathogen. In 1796, British physician Edward Jenner created the first vaccination for smallpox by applying matters of fresh cowpox lesions on an infected eight years old’s hand (Riedel 2005). The fundamental principle behind vaccine is by injecting an antigen (usually a killed or weakened bacteria cell) into a host body; the antigen will imitate an infection and attack the host body. However, since the antigen is weakened or dead before being administered, it will not make the body sick. The antigen triggers the immune system to produce T-lymphocytes1, B-lymphocytes2 and antibodies to attack the affected cells, as though the body was infected with a disease. In the future, when the vaccinated individual encounters the disease, his or her immune system will recognize the pathogen and immediately produce the needed antibodies to fight it, preventing the individual from infected (“Understanding How Vaccines Work” 2013).
Immunization is one of the most effective ways to prevent the widespread of infectious disease. When the vast majority of the population is vaccinated, it results in herd immunity, a form of indirect protection against infectious disease. Vaccination decreases

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