Variations and Characteristics of Mental Retardation Essay example

1100 Words5 Pages
Mental Retardation is an old fashioned term for people who have problems learning and developing, but is defined as a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and behaviors in expressing conceptual, social and practical skills in approximately one to three percent of the United States (Sue, Sue, & Stanley, 2010). Mental retardation is categorized by the DSM-IV-TR as being a genetic disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence, and is not considered to be a cognitive disorder. The following criteria is required for diagnosis of mental retardation under the DSM-IV-TR, Intellectual functioning under the IQ score of 70, concurrent deficiencies in adaptive behaviors and…show more content…
These features include a long narrow face with a large head, protruding forehead, large ears, flat feet and flexible joints (NIH, 2012). Learning is difficult for people with Fragile X Syndrome because the syndrome affects the ability to think, learn and reason, with problems ranging from mild learning issues to severe developmental disability (NIH, 2012). Other characteristics include behavioral, social and emotional problems including anxiety in new situations, problems making eye contact, attention disorders and aggresive behavior (NIH, 2012). Speech, and language problems also exist with Fragile X Syndrome, including trouble speaking clearly, stuttering, speech may come later than others their age, few may never speak. Lastly, many children with Fragile X Syndrome have sensory issues and can be bothered by bright lights, loud noises, or the way clothing feels on their skin, which can cause the child to act out (Sue, Sue, & Stanley, 2010).
Down Syndrome is a condition caused by the presecnce of an extra chromosome called trisomy 21 (t21), which is a non sex chromosome and results in mental retardation and distinct physical characteristics (Sue, Sue, & Stanley, 2010). Trisomy 21 means that each cell in the body has three copies of the chromosome 21, instead of the normal 2 copies received, one from each parent (NLM, 2012). Most cases of Down Syndrome are not hereditary but occur as random events, affecting the genes
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