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Varicella Zoster Virus

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Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human virus that belongs to the α-herpes virus family. The VZV present worldwide and is highly infectious. Primary infection leads to acute varicella or “chickenpox”, usually from exposure either through direct contact with a skin lesion or through airborne spread from respiratory droplets [2, 3]. After initial infection, VZV establishes lifelong latency in cranial nerve and dorsal root ganglia, and can reactivate years to decades later as herpes zoster (HZ) or “shingles” [4]. In addition, more than 90% of adults in the United States acquired the disease in childhood, while the majority of children and young adults have been vaccinated with the live virus vaccine [3, 5]. The increasing incidence
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