Various Biogeochemical Cycles In Our Biosphere Allow For

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Various biogeochemical cycles in our biosphere allow for the sustainability of living organisms, with each cycle being composed of numerous interactions between the environment and the organisms living within them. In particular, the nitrogen cycle is a key component allowing for the movement of nitrogen throughout the biosphere via several biologically mediated processes, particularly nitrification. Nitrification is one of the most well-known processes in microbial ecology and has always been considered to occur in a two-step manner, involving the initial oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-) and the subsequent oxidation of nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-) (Kowalchuk & Stephen, 2001). The vastly diverse microorganisms mediating…show more content…
Though Nitrospira like most other NOB have not yet been thoroughly studied or cultured, recent studies especially by van Kessel and colleagues (2015) a month prior to the publication of this study identified the existence of possible complete ammonia oxidizing organisms, coined the term comammox organisms (van Kessel et al., 2015). The study presented in this paper illustrates the discovery of the first cultured comammox organism Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata, from its discovery in a microbial biofilm to its genomic analysis.

Experiment Daims and colleagues (2015) initiated the study in Aushiger, Russia in April 2011, following the sampling of a microbial biofilm situated on a metal pipe constantly under the flow of hot water, from a 1200 meter deep oil exploration well. Using the biofilm as an inoculum, it was incubated at 46⁰ C in an ammonium-containing mineral medium for the enrichment of moderately thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing microbes. Following several serial dilutions in a similar AOM medium, the enrichment culture ENR4 was cultivated. The ENR4 culture was now scaled up to obtain enough biomass for DNA extraction, and various other analyses including phase contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, FISH, PCR and metagenomics. From the early examinations

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