Vedic And The Vedic Period

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The Vedic period lasted from c. 1750 to 500 BCE. The Vedic texts were arranged when the Indo-Aryans started to inhabit the Ganges-plain. With this new settlement, it transitioned to an agricultural society, and in the need for organization the society created a hierarchical government. The society had to include older habitants of the Ganges-plain, and incorporated them under the Aryan varnas. They also had to appoint political and religious authority to the Brahmins and Kshatriyas. The Vedas, also called Śruti, center on the worship of the elements like fire and rivers, worship of heroic gods like Indra, Varuna and Agni, chanting of hymns and performance of sacrifices. God Indra became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. The philosophy of Vedanta transformed the Vedic worldview to monistic one. This led to the development of tantric metaphysics and gave rise to new forms of yoga, such as jnana yoga and bhankti yoga. People prayed for abundance of children, rain, cattle (wealth), long life and an afterlife in the heavenly world of the ancestors. This mode of worship has been preserved since then in Hinduism. However, the primacy of Vedic deities has been seconded to the deities of Puranic literature. According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts like karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation" did not exist in the Vedic religion. Brahman is a very specific conception of the Absolute in Vedas. Brahman is neither
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