Vibrio cholerae

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Introduction to Microbiology
Pathogen paper
Vibrio cholera

Nazarbayev University
Taxonomy and Morphology
Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium which is causative agent for the diarrheal disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae is a member of the Vibrionaceae family, which is a facultative anaerobic and is capable of respiratory and fermentative metabolism. It does not form spores and its motility is due to the single polar flagellum. Vibrios are highly halophylic and are very sensitive to low pH. (Nair, n.d.)
These bacteria belong to O antigenic group and strains of O group 1 (O1) cause cholera. Strains of O1 are subdivided into two biotypes, classical and El Tor, and into two major serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa. The
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Resistance to cholera may be related to the antibody, local immunoglobulin A against the cholera bacterium or cholera enterotoxin. It can prevent the attachment of the bacteria to the mucosal surface and also block the binding of cholera enterotoxin. IgA is found in breast milk, and breastfeeding can increase the immunity of the infants to cholera and other diarrheal diseases. Patient’s recovery from cholera depends on the antibiotics or patient’s own immune system and regeneration of the epithelial cell s of the intestine. (Finkelstein, 1996)
Hygiene and sanitary control
Cholera is closely connected with the poor hygiene and sanitation. The simplest way to control this is to protect drinking water and food from being contaminated with the human feces. For example, education and compulsion may help to eradicate careless defecation by the people. Also, it is necessary to provide such areas with temporary trench-type latrines, and the powdered chloride should be dropped over excreta and soiled surfaces in and around latrines. In the cities, the public latrines should be maintained properly. Safe-disposal of excretes should be certainly done to prevent the contamination of water sources. Before the sewage would be poured into the rivers and lakes, it should be chlorinated. (Formadi, 2007)
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