Burns & Hamm (2011) conducted a counter research to Olkun (2003) which suggested that both virtual and concrete manipulatives improve significantly over a group that used no manipulatives and the group that used computers, improved slightly more. Burns & Hamm went on to research in an elementary school in West New York that compared virtual manipulatives to concrete manipulatives within the third and fourth grade mathematics courses with the background that concrete manipulatives appear to be widely accepted by math educators for several years based on Clements, (1999); Suydam, (1985); Suydam & Higgins, (1977). 54 fourth grade students were beginning the subject of symmetry. 25 of these students used virtual manipulatives in the study while*…show more content…*

42 of the third-grade students used virtual manipulatives while 49 students used concrete manipulatives. The virtual manipulative students were ranked according to ability and utilized an educational site linked to NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) to explore the lesson on fractions. The concrete manipulative group had a similar activity based on concrete fraction circles and fraction bars. All groups completed their assignments within the allotted 20-minute time period and were given a post test. In the third grade, post test results showed that both groups showed improvement however concrete groups’ point gains were higher when comparing pretest and posttest of virtual manipulatives group. Fourth grade scores proved that both groups made gains in post-test, yet concrete group earned more points in mean test scores. Although the gains were small yet significant, this study contradicted the Olkun (2003) study that suggested computer based manipulatives provides more gains than concrete manipulatives. Hamm & Burns noted that virtual manipulatives caused a slight delay because planning in advance for equipment set up was an issue and the wireless internet is not readily available in all schools. For this reason, concrete manipulatives such as the number grid can be conveniently used by students to find missing parts to one hundred without the use of a wireless

42 of the third-grade students used virtual manipulatives while 49 students used concrete manipulatives. The virtual manipulative students were ranked according to ability and utilized an educational site linked to NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) to explore the lesson on fractions. The concrete manipulative group had a similar activity based on concrete fraction circles and fraction bars. All groups completed their assignments within the allotted 20-minute time period and were given a post test. In the third grade, post test results showed that both groups showed improvement however concrete groups’ point gains were higher when comparing pretest and posttest of virtual manipulatives group. Fourth grade scores proved that both groups made gains in post-test, yet concrete group earned more points in mean test scores. Although the gains were small yet significant, this study contradicted the Olkun (2003) study that suggested computer based manipulatives provides more gains than concrete manipulatives. Hamm & Burns noted that virtual manipulatives caused a slight delay because planning in advance for equipment set up was an issue and the wireless internet is not readily available in all schools. For this reason, concrete manipulatives such as the number grid can be conveniently used by students to find missing parts to one hundred without the use of a wireless

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## Pretty Lights And Maths Summary

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Eyyan, R. (2014). Impact of use of Technology in Mathematics Lessons on Student Achievement and

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Technology is also very important with a student’ education. There are so many uses for technology that can show beneficial for both Asian students and United States students. Throughout the United States there is a wide variety of technology available for teachers. Mathematics Analysis Software, like scientific calculators, function graphers, and geometry packages are made available for students. Since the 1990’s a change in mathematics education has taken place because of the implementation of new ways to help students understand math a little better. This new way helps to implement information technology advancements (Tcheang, 2014).

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## Concrete Manipulative Analysis

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An interesting study that was done to compare concrete manipulatives to virtual ones showed that despite having the technological conveniences of today’s world, student teachers of this study preferred the ease and tangible effects of using concrete manipulatives. The 2011 study was conducted on 78 aspiring middle school math teachers. The student teachers met twice a week to work in groups while using concrete manipulatives including pattern blocks, fraction circles, Cuisenaire rods, two-color counters, and color tiles with a chip abacus. They followed this instruction with corresponding assignments while using virtual manipulatives. The student teachers were then directed to complete survey of questions that would compare both methods of

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## Why Is A Manipulative?

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A manipulative is often used in many ways to teach mathematics such as basic addition, fractions, decimals, order of operations. To name a few manipulatives; blocks, cards, number tiles, counting tubes, etc…A manipulative can be taught either concrete (hands-on) or virtual. Hands-on manipulative models are physical objects such as base-ten blocks, deck of cards, Dice games, and Algebra tiles. A virtual manipulative is a technology that models the existing manipulatives such as base ten blocks, rulers, fractions bars and algebra tiles to name a few. These manipulatives are in the form of Java or Flash applets, a web base technology.

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## How To Use Manipulatives In Math

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In this data, 78% of the students enjoyed using objects. Do Mathematics manipulatives help you understand mathematics better? 88% of the students recorded that their understanding was enhanced with manipulatives. Do Mathematics manipulatives help you finish work quicker? 50% of the students responded in favor of working quicker with a manipulative. An interesting finding suggests that when students used two dimensional concrete manipulatives as opposed to computer based three dimensional manipulatives, students were more engaged with the concrete two dimensional than the three-dimensional computer based manipulatives. Cockett suggests further studies be conducted to research the reasons and effects of this finding. She also concluded that students were more efficient in the area of mathematics while using manipulatives and students enjoyed the task of solving equations while using manipulatives which in turn made the learning experience more pleasurable for the students as a whole. A limitation noted during the study was that students who were high achievers did not feel like they needed to use manipulatives because they understood the content. This caused a challenge for the researcher because her population

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## Why Is A Manipulative?

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A manipulative is often used in many ways to teach mathematics such as basic addition, fractions, decimals, order of operations. To name a few manipulatives; blocks, cards, number tiles, counting tubes, etc…A manipulative can be taught either concrete (hands-on) or virtual. Hands-on manipulative models are physical objects such as base-ten blocks, deck of cards, Dice games, and Algebra tiles. A virtual manipulative is a technology that models the existing manipulatives such as base ten blocks, rulers, fractions bars and algebra tiles to name a few. These manipulatives are in the form of Java or Flash applets, a web base technology.

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## Virtual Manipulatives Research Paper

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Manipulatives are tangible materials that teachers can use to help students understand the abstract concept concretely. Moreover, virtual manipulatives substitute physical manipulatives. Virtual manipulatives offer many benefits, for they can be modified in different ways; for instance, shape, color, and size can be changed easily.

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## Information On How The Overall System Works

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I think the calculator is one of the biggest controls on the mind that the schools have put on students. I felt like I was always held back in math, learned only simple equation, line plotting all the time that you could just plug into the calculator, and it would spit out the answer. This form of teaching is highly manipulative and controlling, it restricts intellectual growth like a snake constricts a mouse. The standardized test with the electronic graders, these technologies have helped control not only what the students learn, how the teachers teach, and this effects the ability to retain knowledge. Humans do learn through repetition, but they also best when they can use the math they learn like having physics and calculus classes that mirror each other, or an equation that you could use in your coding class or even providing coding as an option.

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## Using Technology As An Instructional Tool

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There are many benefits from using technology as an instructional tool in the mathematics classroom. Math is not an easy subject for every student to grasp, there are some students who find that math is as easy as counting “one, two, three”, but for other students first learning math could look like a foreign language. There are many techniques that teachers use for the student to be able to quickly learn and understand, but one of the best ways is to incorporate technology into the lesson. Even if it means teaching the lesson through technology or allowing the student to play online games to allow them to have fun while learning and when it comes time for a test they can refer back to this specific lesson and remember that

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Computer technology is used more and more in today’s educational system. Educators are faced with the task of deciding which genre of computer software is used based on the particular task at hand (i.e., math or science). A main objective of computer technology in education is to teach the student how to develop strategies and different study skills.

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## Elementary Methods : Teaching Mathematics

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By the end of this lesson, learners will be able to list benefits and concerns with using manipulatives in an elementary classroom.

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## Current Trends in Education

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Office staff will update information on the school’s website, use Manatee for budgetary matters, access available tools in SASI program, and use the television scroll to display information. Teachers will utilize technology in daily classroom lessons. The action steps to be used are incorporating technology components each day in lesson planning, allowing teachers to check-out laptops from carts for projection, acquiring screens for each classroom, utilizing Interactive Achievement throughout grading period, providing professional development by individual teacher needs, performing required division testing on the computers (4th and 5th grade benchmarks) and using Study Island and SOL Pass.

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## Historical Context And Basic Principles

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Even if nowadays the majority of our population is familiar with the terms digital (or online) software and tools, there is still a sample of people (or teachers) who are quite uncertain of what is available in mathematics teaching. According to Drijvers et al (2010; cited in Ruthven, 2013) a “Digital Mathematics Environment (DME)” can help teachers and students with various materials and tools of technology. Some of them can be: Games, GeoGebra and Cabri software, Spreadsheets, Web (Internet) and online software/applications (also known as Mathematical Applets), found in Monaghan (2014).

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## The Functional Nature Of The Software

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The functional nature of the software is determined by the order of tasks prepared by the teacher and how the learners interact with the software (Godwin & Beswetherick, 2003). Hence, working on the tasks set using the software, the learners are able to manipulate and explore mathematical relationships independently.

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## The National Library Of Virtual Manipulatives

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The National Library of Virtual Manipulatives is a URL digital link that is chiefly used by families and learners. The portal gives support for all types of mathematics models through the usage of collaborative activities. The site is directed to inform the pupils of all grade levels K-12. The site encompasses five sections of measurement, geometry, number sense and operations, data analysis and probability, and algebra. The subdivisions are separated into four grade-level sections: Pre-K-2, 3- 5, 6-8, and 9-12. Students can connect to the content area they are seeking help by clicking on the selected section. The content known as arithmetic or math obliges manipulatives and accommodating resources. The NLVM (National Library of Virtual Manipulatives) has an excess of links which are accessible in both the classroom and the home. The influential portal offers strategies and resources for all K-12 learners, families, and teachers.

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