Vitamin Deficiencies and Psychiatric Illnesses

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Deficiencies of vitamins are associated with psychiatric illnesses either by being the primary cause or an exacerbating factor. Psychiatric symptoms could also lead to poor nutrition. Vitamin deficiencies may play a role in compromising patient recovery.
Vitamins are organic substances essential for several enzymatic functions.
There are 13 known vitamins which are either fat soluble (4 vitamins i.e. KEDA) or water soluble (9 vitamins i.e. C, & the B group).
Regarding brain function, B vitamins are essential in the maintenance of myelin, neuro-transmitter production, and methylation cycle. Fat-soluble vitamins are necessary in inflammatory regulation, regeneration of antioxidants and genetic modification.
Few studies of vitamin
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Deficiency is common (24% to 56%) among patients receiving haemodialysis (10). Women who take oral contraceptives are at increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (11).

Vitamin B9 (folate)
Folate is required in synthesis of neurotransmitters found in the brain and in phospholipid production. Dietary folate must be converted to L-methylfolate for use in the brain. Folate deficiency and insuf¬ficiency are common among patients with mood disorders and correlate with illness severity (12).
A meta-analysis of 11 stud¬ies of 15,315 persons found those who had low folate levels had a significant risk of depression (13). In Tunisia, bipolar I patients with hyperhomocysteinemia had reduced levels of folate (14)
The TT genotype in patients with a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is associated with major de¬pression and bipolar disorder (15). Clinical tri¬als have shown that several forms of folate can enhance antidepressant treatment (16).

Vitamin B12
An essential cofactor, B12 is needed to produce monoamine neurotrans¬mitters and maintain myelin. Psychiatric manifestations have been described to occur in the presence of low serum B12 levels but in the absence of the other well-recognized neurologic and
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