“Autonomy is defined as self-determination and freedom from the control of others and making your life choices” (Morrison, 2011). The principle of autonomy holds that actions or practices tend to be right thus far as they respect or reflect the exercise of self-determination. “Persons and their actions are never fully autonomous, but nevertheless it is possible to recognize certain individuals and their decisions as more or less substantially autonomous” (Organ Procurement & Transplant Network, 2010). With the presentation of the principle of autonomy there are a few considerations such as, refusal of an organ and the right to do so, directed donation allocation, the processes of organ donation, and allocation rules that enable patients to make informed decisions.
Every day some dies after waiting years on a transplant list. The National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 says that in the United States, the sale of organs is illegal. Some believe this act may be preventing thousands of people from getting the organs that will save their lives. The truth is every day someone dies and their organs could be used to help others and everyday a life of one and the livelihood of another could be saved. The reasons for allowing the sale of organs is very simple to understand. It can help others financially, save money on medical expenses and most importantly, save lives. Critiques believe this would be a mistake causing spur of the moment decisions, and illegal obtain these organs for sale. With the use of regulation, these doubts can be laid to rest. Before the problem can be solved, the problem has to be identified.
Kishore also notes that the reason for permitting the sale of organs is not to better the health quality of the sellers or to reward them “a long term economic benefit”, as assumed. Comparable monetary or health benefits don’t occur in charitable contributions either, but they are acceptable. The decisions for allowing the sale of organs are set in the interest of saving the lives of incurably ill patients with the help of accessible medical expertise and
Many of those who choose to sell their organ is either forced or manipulated by wealth. It is more likely for a poorer citizen from a developing country to be willing to supply n organ for a member of the upper class or for someone who can afford it, either through directly or through a broker. Brokers will do what every it takes to get what is being demanded. Some of the donors involved in organ trafficking are victims of body snatching or involuntary organ donations. Brokers will have the individual drugged and their organ removed without their consent to the procedure, they are also known for kidnaping poor and take whatever organ they desire and leave them there for dead. “Although estimates of trafficked persons are in their millions relatively few are identified” (Steinfall, T.M and Weitzer, R., 2011). Today brokers work with hospital staffs to locate poverty-stricken individuals to sell their organs for money. Some doctors often target children of poor countries in sell their organ in the black-market. In spite of its awareness, trafficking is still increasing. Trafficking a human organ is a growing profitable enterprise much like the unauthorized markets for weapons, humans, and drugs. Without the enforcement of laws against organ trafficking it is easier for an organ trafficker to buy and sell human organ increasing criminal
Exploitation is an influential or manipulative act cause by to superior knowledge or power. It normally occurs when a profit is involved and the profit is the incentive. Exploitation of the poor for organ sales could occur because the poor would be selling their organs at a lower price below market value be. The rich are able to use the poor’s lack of knowledge and need for money to their advantage. However, if organ
Schulman first introduce readers to the fact that 17 people die each day in United States due to organ shortage, which is staggering and alarming at the same time. The lack of organ donors has raised discussion about legalizing organ sales as a solution to increase the number of donors. Many ethicists, however, are opposed to the idea because they worry that putting a price tag on a human body part will “corrupt the very meaning of human dignity” (447). Yet, it is no longer a secret that the black market has already put a value on human dignity, which caused more damage,
Selling organs is a rising problem in the healthcare community, government and morality. Organ sales has become the topic of discussion for numerous reasons. Some of which being lowering the wait time on the organ transplant waitlist and taking advantage of the financially disadvantaged. This issue affects many people on many different levels, some people morally or legally but mostly importantly medically. What this basically comes down to is: “Who are we to judge what people do with their bodies?”. The answer to this question lays in many different sources. The simplified answer is no we can not tell people what they can and can not tell other people what they can and can ot do with their bodies.
“Altruism is the sole legitimate impulse behind organ donation” (…..), the onetime best U.S best seller further argued that altruistic acts are important qualities of human relationships in a society. Satel carefully cleared doubts of the notion that compensating donors will commodify the body and dehumanize us, she believes that its better to legalize organ donation than allow people suffer and die.
An organ market will lead to exploitation and unfair advantages for the rich and powerful. It will creates injustice between the rich and the poor as the rich will get organs because of their money but to those who is less fortunate people will not be able to have access to these resources. Vulnerable people such as kids, less educated people, or people from third world countries will get exploited and harvested their organs for richer people. When organs are freely tradable, many extremely poor people, especially those who are struggling to survive, will be forced to sell parts of their bodies. Poverty and corruption are underlying themes behind seller giving up their organs as most donors see it as the only option to make money. For most
“Organs” Satel insists, “are the rare trafficked good that saves lives.” ‘Yuan a Kidney?’ and ‘Financial Incentives for Organ Donation’ discuss opposing views of organ donation and trafficking. The National Kidney Foundation finds financial incentives for organ donation to be a form of exploitation, demeaning to society and all around unethical. Satel, however, holds a different perspective in the sense that if a citizen is informed and consenting to donating an organ to save another life for a monetary gain it could improve not only their welfare but the patient’s welfare as well. “Financial Incentives..” focuses strictly on a logical appeal; while “Yuan a Kidney?” is much more emotional while being logical. Satel provides the attention to donors as well as patients. NFK is speaking from a standpoint of legalities and ethics with no regards to donors as people willing to save a life, and little to patients in need of transplants.
At this point, a better means to explain the transplant case is required, and for that, preferably we will only use the fundamental tenets associated to utilitarianism. One of the major solutions for this case will be simply ignoring the intuitive answers and to assert that an operation for transplant will indeed be a moral
As technology advances and medical procedures and research expand, new treatments and new conflicts are created. A problem that has always plagued medical science is failing organs. As of today, organ failure is impossible to reverse and the only solution is replacement. There is a massive demand for healthy organs and with this demand comes the issue of bioethics.
Our topic is on organ transplant. We will focus on the process and ethical dilemmas surrounding it. Our group chose this topic because we care and understand that this can happen to our love ones. We want to raise our concern about this worldwide issue, and where the black market for organs come into play. The stakeholders include the people (donors or receivers), doctors, government, businesses, and experts. We will be focusing on the culture and the ethical issues that related to organ transplant, conflict of interests, ethics in the design phases, debt/ financing, and regulation. Since our topic is quite detailed, we will start with what is the precise definition of “brain death” in a heart beating body that is kept
In recent years, there been discussions about the underground economy concerning the illicit sales of organ retrieval services. Either by trade, sale or illegal stealing of organs the effects is widespread in foreign countries making way to the United States. The effects of this practice deeply affect many people who give into the hype of sacrificing self or others for payoffs, with the benefit not equaling to the value or the accommodations promised. The events happening, in foreign countries, affect the world and beyond because trends set standards not just where they begin, but who benefits. The correlation is if it sounds good and looks good, then why not tries it and reaps the perks. One particular scenario, which is causing such a trend in the world, is the selling of organs for money, which never in a million years will equal to human life. The game is to prey on the weak and poor by alluring those that sacrifice organs, an illusion of promises, perks or monies are the tactics used. When a person is preyed upon because of financial status or poverty struck, then the attraction is far greater for the seeker and the challenge is to retrieve the organ at any cost. What’s the solution for poverty stricken people who decide to sell, trade, or donate organs to a complete stranger for financial gain, perks, and the sacrifice of one’s life?
In the United States, there are over one hundred thousand people on the waiting list to receive a life-saving organ donation, yet only one out of four will ever receive that precious gift (Statistics & Facts, n.d.). The demand for organ donation has consistently exceeded supply, and the gap between the number of recipients on the waiting list and the number of donors has increased by 110% in the last ten years (O'Reilly, 2009). As a result, some propose radical new ideas to meet these demands, including the selling of human organs. Financial compensation for organs, which is illegal in the United States, is considered repugnant to many. The solution to this ethical dilemma isn’t found in a wallet; there are other alternatives available