Water- Problems

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nternational Annual UN-Water Zaragoza Conference 2012/2013
Preparing for the 2013 International Year. Water Cooperation: Making it Happen! 8-10 January 2013
Challenges for Water Cooperation
Action is needed to improve water resources planning, evaluate availability and needs within watersheds, reallocate or expand existing storage facilities where necessary, emphasize the importance of managing water demand, develop a better balance between equity and efficiency in water use, and overcome inadequate legislative and institutional frameworks and the rising financial burdens of ageing infrastructure.
At each level there are a variety of issues that require water cooperation. Dealing with increasing water scarcity, water abstraction and
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The urban population of the world is forecast to grow to 6.3 billion people in 2050 from 3.4 billion in 2009, representing both population growth and net migration from countryside to city. There is already a backlog of un-served urban populations, and the number of people in cities who lack access to improved water supply and sanitation is estimated to have grown some 20% since the Millennium Development Goals were established. And while 64% of those who gained access to improved sanitation during the period 1990-2008 lived in urban areas, urban areas are struggling to keep up with urban population growth.
Water quality and quantity
The geographical nature of rivers and watershed basins is another dimension which can affect the relations between countries and communities. As rivers and tributaries run from highlands to lowlands, the upstream use and treatment of water can have consequences for downstream users. Water quality and quantity are at the center of upstream-downstream disputes.
Factors effecting water quality and leading to contamination include agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, residential sewage disposal and land-use changes. These types of contamination can have deleterious impacts on drinking water supplies, the

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