Essay on Water in the Biochemical Process

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Water is a vital part for the function of organisms, as it is involved in the “energetics” of molecular interactions and conformational adaption of macromolecules in animal and plant cells, due to its structure, flexibility and several unique properties (Rand, 2004).
In an organism’s cell, various types of water are present. They are known as bound, hydration, vicinal and bulk water. 95% of watery body fluid is composed of bulk water, since they function as “space filling medium”, which supports life and creates an aqueous medium for cellular reactions (Watterson, 1987) .
Water as a “space filling medium”, also aid to assemble molecules, hence they can “achieve a configuration of lower free energy” (Rand, 2004).
Water’s effect on the
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This dissociates to form H+ and HCO3 - , which acts as buffer in blood plasma, keeping the pH constant for efficient enzyme activity. The dissociation occurs, because water has a slight tendency to ionize (Brooker et al., 2007). Ionic substances, such as, enzymes and hormones dissolve in body fluids, causing the electrostatic attraction between them to decrease, thus increasing their solubility.
In metabolic processes such as in a hydrolysis reaction, water acts as a reactant; where the electron-rich oxygen acts as a nucleophile. For example, hydrolysis of polysaccharides, e.g., sucrose, to form monosaccharides, e.g., fructose and glucose, and these are utilized by the body for various functions. Hydrolysis reaction releases energy so they are favourable, since the entropy of the system is increased. For instance, when energy is needed; water is required to hydrate ATP to release the energy. Water is also essential in oxidation-reduction reactions, e.g., respiration (Brooker et al., 2007).
Water is a stable medium, for efficient enzyme activity, due to the properties that water molecules display, such as, high specific heat capacity and high heat of vaporization. This ensures that the temperatures are kept fairly constant in an organism, so the optimum temperature of the enzyme is maintained (Nelson, Cox & Lehninger, 2008).
During photosynthesis, water plays an important role as they donate electron, to electron

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