Ways of Expressing Future Actions. Diachronic and Synchronic Analysis

5681 WordsMay 16, 201123 Pages
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………….………..4 1. THEORETICAL SURVEY..………………………….……..........................5 1.1. Ways of expressions future actions. Diachronic approach...........................5 1.2. The synchronic analysis. Future tenses.........................................................9 1.3. Forms of expressing futurity……………......................................…….....14 2. LINGUISTIC INVESTIGATION................................................................. 18 2.1. Analysis of ways of expressing future actions.......…………………….....18 CONCLUSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ……………........................................23 Bibliography INTRODUCTION There are many ways to…show more content…
Subj. Ind. Subj. Sg. 1 mæg meahte mihte, mihten 2 meaht } mæge meahtest 3 mæg meahte Pl. magon mægen meahton In the simple future usage, the different meanings of shall and will depending on which grammatical person is being used is an example of suppletion, the commingling of words from separate roots into a single paradigm. Both shall and will are verbs of ancient Germanic ancestry. In Proto-Indo-European, an inflected future tense existed, but that tense was lost in Germanic. In all Germanic languages, the future tense is formed with auxiliary verbs; this was the case in Gothic and the earliest recorded expressions of Germanic languages. The verb shall represents Old English sceal, and is cognate with Old Norse skal, German soll, and Dutch zal; these all represent *skol-, the o-grade of Indo-European *skel-. All of these verbs function as auxiliaries in each language, and represent either simple futurity or necessity. The verb will is cognate with the noun will, of course, and continues Old English willan, which represents *willjan. It occurs in Old Norse vilja, German wollen, Dutch willen, Gothic wiljan; it has many relatives outside of Germanic as well, including, for example, Latin velle "to wish for" or Polish (West Slavic) "ja wolę" - I would rather / prefer. All of these forms derive from the e-grade or o-grade of Indo-European *wel-, meaning to

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