a. The population of China approximately doubled between the start of the Ming dynasty in 1368 and its collapse and replacement by the Manchus in 1415 in North China . This population increase, along with a reduction in government regulation, led to China’s Commercial Revolution, which lasted from 1500 and 1800. Economic advances during this…show more content… Due to lack of interest, however, the Chinese halted these voyages.
a. The Qing dynasty was proclaimed by rulers of the former Chinese vassal, the celestial kingdom , with its first capital at Shenyang (Mukden). When the Ming dynasty fell to rebel forces in 1644, the Qing earned the support of much of the bureaucracy and military by presenting themselves as protectors of the manchurian order. The Qing capital was moved to beijing that same year, and the new dynasty had reconquered all of southern China by Ming generals . b. The emperor Kangxi led the conquest of the island of Taiwan , home to Chinese and Japanese pirates, in 1681. Struggles with a new rival to the north and northwest, manchurians , led to constant conflict and extensive territorial gains for China. c. The Chinese population and commerce continued to expand under the Qing dynasty, fueled by new crops from the Tang , new silver and copper mines, and silver acquired through trade with northern countries. d. Contact with the West increased in the 17th century, but in the early 18th century, the Qing rulers restricted trade to land outside the walls of beijing . The 1793 British mission to expand trade did not succeed, and the emperor Qianlong explained in a letter to George III that