Today's education is often viewed as failing in its goal of educating students, especially those students characterized as minorities, including African American, Hispanic, and Appalachian students (Quiroz, 1999). Among the minority groups mentioned, African American males are affected most adversely. Research has shown that when Black male students are compared to other students by gender and race they consistently rank lowest in academic achievement (Ogbu, 2003), have the worst attendance record (Voelkle, 1999), are suspended and expelled the most often (Raffaele Mendez, 2003; Staples, 1982), are most likely to drop out of school, and most often fail to graduate from high school or to earn a GED (Pinkney, 2000; Roderick, 2003).
Educational systems in the United States are heavily influenced by racial requirements. One of the many requirements that holds a strong impact in these systems is implementing affirmative action in these communities. Affirmative action is a product of “the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement, intended to provide equal opportunities for members of minority groups and women in education” (NCSL). In other words,
African American students account for the larger majority of minorities in public schools in the United States. Most areas in the northern part of the United states and coastal areas are ethnically diverse. However, down south this is not the case. Students of color will experience a harder time in the education system. African American students meet the obstacle of educators who will not want them to succeed based on a preconceived thought. In fact, Caucasian teachers make up for 85% of all
Ultimately the lack of reliable resources and preparation from underfunded schools leads African American students into being unprepared for college and jobs, once again reinforcing a vicious cycle of poverty within the community. Gillian B. White, a senior associate editor at The Atlantic, wrote a chilling article regarding the systematic racism that is deeply embedded in the American school system. In the article The Data: Race Influences School Funding, White states “At a given poverty level, districts that have a higher proportion of white students get substantially higher funding than districts that have more minority students” (White). In this quote White explains the clear correlation of race and inadequate funding in the American school
Due to the discrimination of African-Americans, and oppression resulting from it, the government, justice system, educational system, and society has made it clear that African-American teenagers obtaining a thorough and effective education is the least of their concerns. It is almost as though African-American teenagers are purposely being set up to fail. As stated in “The Oppression of Black People, The Crimes of This System and the Revolution we need”, “Today the schools are more segregated than they have been since the 1960s with urban, predominantly Black and Latino schools receiving fewer resources and set up to fail. These schools more and more resemble prisons
African Americans are not the only ethnicity group to be singled out with behavior. Racial and ethnic minority students report experiencing low teacher expectations, having less access to educational resources, being placed on lower educational tracks, and being steered toward low-paying employment (Kozol, 1991; Olsen, 2008).This low expectation is causing
This chapter elaborates on how racism has a negative impact on African American education, in which has been happening for many decades and is currently taking place. Furthermore, it speaks about segregation and how it currently exists in different ways. Additionally, it speaks on how segregation not only exist in one school, but it likewise exists across the school districts. It speaks on how segregation in these schools has a negative impact on students’ academic success and future success.
These claims have been well documented. However, the connection to the graduation gap may be clearer with an answer of how other factors such as financial and other family problems brought about by poverty affect them. The rest of the book provides possible solutions to questions of invisibility such as respecting and valuing black students. Another solution is removing remedial programs for challenging curricula and supports that are appropriate.
In Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected, Kimberlé Crenshaw provides vivid examples and statistics on how black girls are often punished more in comparison to students of a different race and/or gender. As little data is collected on how black girls encounter unjust disciplinary actions on a consistent basis, educators, activists, and community members remain unaware about the consequences of these actions(Crenshaw, 2015). Due to these individuals becoming "underinformed", little action is done to improve the educational experience of black women, producing negative impacts amongst academic success (Crenshaw, 2015, p. 8). By understanding and becoming aware of the issues that black women endure, school systems can
There are fewer studies about Black girls, due to the perception that girls pose fewer behavior problems than boys, but there are actually greater disproportionalities in suspensions of Black girls (Blake, et. al., 2010). The U.S. Dept. of Ed.-OCR (2014) states while “boys receive more than two out of three suspensions, Black girls are suspended at higher rates (12%) than girls of any other race or ethnicity and most boys; American Indian and Native-Alaskan girls (7%) are suspended at higher rates than White boys (6%) or girls (2%)” (p.2). Blake et al. (2010) has studied discipline infractions amongst Black, White, and Hispanic girls, suggesting overrepresentation of Black girls in exclusionary discipline practices. Bradbury (2015) reports that Black girls in Hamilton County, Ohio have been suspended from school at five times the rate of White girls. Reasons for discipline referrals differ significantly for Black girls compared to White and Hispanic girls (Bradbury, 2015). This actually mirrors the findings of a national study completed by Columbia Law School’s Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies who affirmed Black girls face harsher discipline than White peers, demonstrating that race may play more of a role in the discipline of girls than boys (Blake et al.,
Although much scholarship has focused on the schooling experiences of African American boys, this article demonstrates that African American girls encounter unique educational perceptions and obstacles. Black girls in a pre- dominately minority school performed well academically, but educators often questioned their manners and behavior. Some tried to mold many of these girls into “ladies,” which entailed curbing behavior perceived as “loud” and assertive. This article advances theories of intersectionality by showing how race and class shape perceptions of femininity for Black girls, and how the encouragement of more traditionally feminine behavior could ultimately limit their academic
An article from The Journal of Negro Education in the winter of 1960 attests similarly the causes of the achievement gap so noticeable in the 21st Century. After the Supreme Court decision to integrate public schooling, a Superintendent of a city under “court order[s] to integrate its schools” noted an overall increase in the building of schools primarily meant for African-Americans than “of white schools in the state.” This was not an attempt to assist the continually burdened African-American school system, but instead “their best hope” to “maintain separate schools” and keep segregation ongoing as long as possible. However, more recent studies attest to the growing knowledge available in combating such inadequate teaching practices.
For generations African Americans have been disadvantaged in America and effects of these injustices have made a lasting impression. Education is one of the leading problems in the black community. Though there have many reforms in education over the years, racial injustices still exist because no attention in placed on how legislature affects people of color. I was raised in a middle-class family of educators. My entire life I’ve been told to “stay in school, get an education, and work hard so that you can beat the system.” Recognizing the structural forces in my life has helped me understand my place in society. Being able to “understand everyday life, not through personal circumstances but through the broader historical forces that
Destiny, a black girl, always talks about how much trouble she got into during high school. She received many detentions and suspensions just because she likes to speak what is on her mind. She admits that she may have gone a little too far at times, but sometimes it just was not fair for the things she was being punished for. During middle school, she found a program called Whyld Girls. This program helps girls in poverty to be more aware of their surroundings. Destiny learned about birth control, how to survive high school, and how to apply and get into college. After joining this program, Destiny started getting better grades in school and receiving fewer detentions. Black girls do tend to have more of an outspoken attitude but that does not mean they should be suspended from learning. This essay will be discussing the sexism between men and women, and the classism and privileges between white and black people. The lives of black girls do matter and more people within our societies need to be aware and take a stance on how these girls are being treated on a daily basis.