What Are Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome ( Pcos ) Is The Most Common Endocrine Disorder?

3279 Words Mar 30th, 2015 14 Pages
Abstract

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder diagnosed in women of reproductive age. The disease manifests itself with varying symptoms and has long term consequences of heart disease, diabetes, and infertility. PCOS has no clear etiology or pathophysiology, and as new information is being contributed, the mechanism and components of the disease is being updated. Presented here are the most understood and accepted components of PCOS, and its pathology as a reproductive disorder along with its endocrine and metabolic relationships. PCOS pathophysiology exhibits itself mainly through increased androgen synthesis through ovaries and adrenal glands causing follicle growth to halt in the antral stage. Its
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The variability can be seen already with this presented symptom, but hyperandrogegism is the main presented symptom seen in the clinic with about 80% of PCOS patients (4). Associated with these increased androgen levels is hirsuitism, which is hair growth in expected areas for males, commonly including the face, back, upper lip, and chest. Acne also is seen as a result, but is typically not used in the primary evaluation because of its nonspecific nature (1,5). Among the long term consequences of PCOS is infertility with 40% of women being affected. It is the result of follicular development arresting in the antral stage and ovulation never occurring, also known as anovulatory infertility. The long term damaging affects of PCOS regarding infertility seems to be the strongest effect as 95% of women with PCOS have infertility (6). The multiple cysts that present itself in the name are ironically common in only a few of those diagnosed with PCOS, occurring only in about 30% of women (3,7). It is the result of follicles not being released and surrounding fluid accumulating from the ovary in the follicles (1,3). Because of the variability presented, criteria had to be established to eliminate its relationship to other diseases such as Cushing’s disease and thyroid disorders. Typically standards are used from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and European Society for Human Reproduction and
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