In the location-based routing, sensor nodes are distributed randomly in an interesting area. They are positioned mostly by utilizing of Global position system. The distance among the sensor nodes is evaluated by the signal strength obtained from those nodes and coordinates are computed by interchanging information among neighbouring nodes. Location-based routing networks are;
In this section, we present the details of proposed protocol. Our protocol implements the idea of probabilities for cluster heads selection based on initial energy and residual energy of sensor nodes as well as the average energy of the sensor network.
In this example, here node A wants to send data packets to node D and starts to find the shortest path for its destination, so if node D is a malicious node then it will show that it has active route to the specified destination. It will then send the response In the example, data packets transfer in a hierarchic data center network. The link capacity is 1000 kb/s. The number on each is the traffic load. The distribution of traffic is based on equal cost multi-path (ECMP). In figure 8, we can see that the 3). Congestions
This protocol use Dijkstra algorithm. It maintains a complex data base, also called as link state database, which contains full information about the remote routers and the exact network topology. The goal from this protocol is to provide similar information about network connection to each router, so each router can calculate the best route to each network this is happen when each router generates information about itself and pass these information to other routers in the network so each router make a copy of this information without changing it.
In simulated network the source node designated as1 initiates the routing procedure by sending RREQ or Route Request message to its surrounding nodes. The RREQ message sent by the source node is denoted in the color green. The other RREQ messages are shown in cyan, yellow, black etc. The source node 1 is sending the RREQ message to its neighbour nodes 5, 6, 9, 11 and 13 and the links are formed shown by the green line. Every time node 5,6,9,11,13 is sending the RREQ message to its neighbour and the links are formed.
It traces the distance based group of users with same distance from the source .Now we use the probability function to form the probability based group.
In order to avoid this problem, a technique called probability distribution algorithm is introduced. In probability distribution algorithm, the random traffic between the primary network users are analyzed. The nearby nodes behaviors are learnt by the secondary node. The probability of the traffic in the neighboring nodes are studied by the node that tries to transmit data. When the traffic is free then the secondary node establishes the connection. If there is traffic then the secondary node searches for other nodes. Thus the data transmission occurs in this CR
The Mobile ad hoc networks is one of the emerging technologies today. The instability of the nodes in a mobile ad hoc network makes it difficult to calculate the reliability of the network. When a node moves freely move in a
MIMO antenna configuration is requires in spatial multiplexing. In spatial multiplexing the high rate signal is divide into low rate signals and each individual stream is transmitted from different transmit antenna which is having the same frequency channel. Spatial multiplexing is technique which is capable of increasing channel capacity at higher signal to noise
At the beginning of ﬁrst period, each node except the sink node sets its both cost ﬁelds to and parent node ﬁelds to -1, but at the beginning of subsequent periods, each node only sets its both cost ﬁeld to and no change is made to the parent node ﬁelds. The sink node sets its both cost ﬁelds to 0 and set its parent node ﬁelds to its own ID. At the beginning of this phase, sink node transmit an ADV1 message to all its neighbours. When a node receives an ADV1 message, it does not broadcast its own ADV message to its neighbour immediately. Following steps are executed before sending the ADV1 message to its
Selection combining is used fir very high frequency and ultra high frequency as maximum ratio combing and equal gain combing is not suitable to work under these high frequencies because tracking performance is not easy in a frequency changing or multipath fading. A simple implementation procedure is used in selection combining and is more beneficial then maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining. In this technique the highest signal level branch is selected. In short selection combining is used to look after all the diversity branches and